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The editor said: This time we have come to talk about what changes have happened in solid -state hard disks over the past few decades.

[History of hardware editing] I wonder if everyone still remembers how big their first solid state drive is? Since the release of the first commercial SSD in 1991, the development of commercial solid -state hard disks has been unknowingly for more than 30 years. Every time we talk about solid -state hard disks, it is inevitable to talk about the content of particles and main control. We can easily fall into the strange circle of “only granular theory”, but ignore the development of related technologies over the years. The continuous evolution of technology has long achieved a refined scenario classification. Below we will talk about the changes in solid -state hard disks from the aspects of flash memory, flash memory, and main control.

“Super Evolution” of flash memory particles: from 2DNAND to 3DNAND

There is a topic that cannot be bypassed when talking about solid -state hard disks, that is, players often discuss “granules”. Senior players should know that the chips often discussed in solid -state drives include main control, flash memory, and DRAM, and the discussion on particles is exactly the highest ones. The flash memory particles currently discussed are actually NAND flash memory. This type of flash memory has been widely used on personal computers we daily.

The two black chips on the right are flash memory particles

There is a feature of the working method of NAND flash memory. If we want to write the data that has been written into the data, we need to erase its data before we can rewrite it. As the number of times of being wiped out and written, NAND flash memory will be deserved, which is why the life of solid -state hard disks is described as “scratching times”.


The early NAND flash memory was laid on the plane and called “2DNAND”. For a less appropriate example, just like we design the parking space in the parking lot. No matter how exquisite the route is, the parking lot can accommodate the parking lot in the case of a fixed area. Parking (data storage) demand, then you have to make a multi -layer parking lot. If you are not enough, you can do two -layer or even three layers. In the 2DNAND era, in order to try to use the limited area as much as possible, the manufacturer only continued to use new processes, but with problems such as skewers, the flash memory particles can no longer be improved simply by relying on process progress. V-NAND).

3DNAND helps reduce costs

NAND flash memory is also the same. The capacity of “2DNAND” is limited, so it is “3DNAND”. At present, Micron has achieved 176 layers of NAND mass production. The flash memory density and cost compression have reached unprecedented height. In the near future, 192 layers, 192 layers NAND will also be mass -produced, and a higher -capacity and lower -cost solid -state hard disk are expected to be born.


The type of flash memory that has diversified commercial flash memory types in the sound of disputes: from SLC to QLC

According to the working principle of the solid -state hard disk, its data is stored in the semiconductor unit, and there are four main types that have been widely used, namely SLC, MLC, TLC, and QLC. TLC belongs to 3bit/cell, QLC belongs to 4bit/cell. This value means the data of each storage unit. For example, there is only one data of a unit of SLC. The more data digits in a single storage unit, the higher the accuracy of the main control control.

Picture source wikipedia

Therefore, the durability P/E (life), speed and cost of SLC particles are the highest among all types. These parameters decrease with the increase in data in the unit. From MLC to TCL to QLC, there will even be 5bit/in the future. Cell’s PLC has become commercial products.

Through data comparison, you can more intuitively know the parameters of different types of NAND flash memory. The number of scratches of SLCNAND flash memory is more than 10,000 times, the number of MLCNAND flash memory is between 3000-10000, and the number of rubbers of the TLC flash memory is 1000- Between 3000, the number of rubbers of QLCNAND flash memory is within 1,000 times.


In the current application scenarios of solid -state hard disks, solid -state hard disks with pure SLCNANAND flash memory are basically military or commercial, while MLC is mostly high -end consumer -grade products and commercial products to cope with the solid -state hard drive of our daily use needs. TLCNAND is enough As for the solid -state hard disk of QLCNANAND flash memory, the advantage is that the capacity is large enough, the single full wiper period is extended, and the short board of the life can also be partially made up.

QLC particles make the solid hard drive capacity another height

Take Samsung with a very rich product type as an example. His solid -state hard disk covers these four types of flash memory. The respective representatives are Samsung 970Pro using MLC3DNAND, Samsung 980/Samsung 860EVO using TLC3DNAND, and Samsung 860QVO using QLC3DNAND. Essence

Consumer MLC solid -state hard drive is sharply reduced to “difficulty” in consumers.

When talking about the type of flash memory, players often “difficulty” to gradually turn to commercial use at the consumer -level MLC flash memory products. TLC flash memory and QLC flash memory have begun to become consumer -level mainstream. This process has indeed been controversial, but it is undeniable that consumers can now use less money to buy a stronger and higher -performance solid -state hard disk products.

The main control chip upgrade: from the improvement of technology, the reading and writing speed has increased by dozens of times

Manufacturers can safely use TLC and QLC flash memory with lower theoretical life span. The main reason is that the main control chip is becoming more powerful. Most of the solid -state hard drive parameters we can see are inseparable from the main control. Agreement, TRIM support, wear balance, garbage recovery mechanism, etc. From the high cost of the past, the SATA solid -state hard disk with only 1,200MB/s with a speed of reading, and the current reading speed exceeds 7000MB/s PCIE4.0 solid -state hard drive. non-stop upgradin.

Source Lianyun official website


The main control of the solid -state hard disk belongs to the “central brain” of the entire product. On the one hand, he needs to communicate with the host through the external interface, receive and process the console of the host. On the other hand Quickly store data and take into account the life of flash memory chips.


The solid -state hard disk parameters we see are more like the “re -engraving” of the main control parameters.

The concept of jerky abstraction is not easy to understand. What is more important to our ordinary consumers is that since the main control of solid -state hard disks, this chip has been developing rapidly, and supports more data security and data security, monitoring hard disk health, extended extension The technology of flash memory granules, such as Trim, S.M.A.R.T technology, bad block management, LDPC error correction, power -off protection, and so on.


Because of the increasingly powerful master control, the TLC solid -state hard disk, which has been disdenked by consumers for a long time, was able to “turn around” to become the mainstream of current consumer -level solid -state hard disks, and even gave birth to a group of high -end solid -state hard drives recognized by users. The main control chip is so important, and the research and development capabilities of the main control have become the hard power embodiment of the storage product development manufacturer.

ELPIS main control is currently Samsung’s flagship


At present, there are representatives of the main research control of the main control of consumer -grade products. Naturally, Samsung with a strong supply chain. Its self -developed main control is only applied to its own products, and is currently applied to the main control of the Samsung 980pro. When V-NAND3-BITMLC flash memory (that is, TLC) and 2GBDDR4SDRAM, the reading speed of up to 7000MB/s can be achieved and the sequence of 5100MB/s can be achieved.

In addition, mainstream primary and second -tier manufacturers such as Horsepie, Lianyun, Qunlian, and Huirong also provide rich main control products for third -party manufacturers to purchase for different positioning. Some manufacturers also provide one -stop integration solutions. The solid -state hard disk products on the market can show the trend of flowers, and it is inseparable from the efforts of a group of main control solutions.

Single disk capacity leapfrog: from 32GB in 2007 to 8TB in 2020

There are so many technical concepts paved in front, but I have to admit that for our ordinary consumers, the first thing to think of the hard disk is the capacity. Factors such as flash memory, main control and other factors.

Return to the title, the world’s first commercial solid -state hard disk was launched by Snndi in 1991. Its capacity is only 20MB. By 2018, the ExadrivedC100SSD launched by Nimbusdata has the amazing capacity of its name. This 100 does not represent 100GB of 100GB. Instead of 100TB! In the past 27 years, the capacity of commercial rating solid -state drive has been one million times. If commercial products are far from our consumer, it may wish to return to consumer -level products.

How much “information” can this hard disk be put, picture source network


From the 2.5 -inch 32GB solid -state hard drive released in 2007, to 2020, consumers can buy a solid -state hard drive with 8TB capacity, and it is no wonder that more and more consumers perceive that the capacity of the current solid hard disk has been greatly rushed The momentum of super mechanical hard disk. Although the high -capacity solid -state hard disk we can buy is the high probability of “unwilling to see” QLC flash memory products, the random read and write performance advantage of solid -state hard disks itself is difficult to compare with mechanical hard disks. The magic weapon of the rapid popularization of large -capacity solid -state hard disks.

A QLC particle capacity is as high as 1TB, and the service life is no longer the most concerned issue


As for the “life problem” that players are worried about, we can compare the Samsung 840EVO of TLC flash in that year with the Samsung 860QVO of QLC flash memory for the first time. It has risen to 360TBW. Although both are far behind the 600TBW of Samsung 870EVO1TB version, this also shows that with the current main control technology and flash memory process, the life of the QLC solid state disk is not as bad as imagined. It is worth mentioning that the 8TB capacity version of the Samsung 870QVO durable value is as high as 2880TBW, and it can be used for nearly 8 years according to writing 1TB data per day.

Slowly writing speed is not ideal, the main reason for the QLC “persuasion” consumers


What we really worry about is the slowdown performance attenuation of the QLC solid -state hard disk. Taking the Samsung 860QVO we have evaluated as an example, the slowing speed of the 1TB version is only 80MB/s, which is already lower than the level of the mechanical hard disk. Even It is a 4TB version, and its slow -handwriting speed is only 160MB/s. Therefore, the positioning of the QLC solid -state hard disk is still a storage disk, which is not suitable for frequent reading and writing operating environment.

Summary: Solid -state hard disk has already been integrated into life

With the continuous improvement and maturity of solid -state hard disk products, we have not heard whether it will replace other types of hard disks for a long time. Instead, we have seen that more and more consumers are discussing which solid -state hard drive is suitable What application scenarios are used, this is exactly the proof of the solid hard disk that really integrates into our lives.

At present, the consumer -level solid -state hard disk market has not been born in a real monopoly -level giant. As consumers, we can also enjoy the dividend of “all flowers”. However, with the upgrade of the PCIEGEN5 interface and the emergence of new flash memory, the new round of update is coming, let us wait and see.