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Cigarettes may be the most common consumer goods in our daily life. At the same time, it may also be consumer goods with the most cultural symbols.

Temperament, personality, culture, and sexual hints … the meaning behind cigarettes is born in the process of evolution. Although cigarettes mean nicotine or lung cancer more, cigarettes are more than time, but it is undeniable that the traces left by its cultural changes will be circulated in a short time. In different novels and movie scenes, we have also continued to be portrayed with a cigarette, thinking about the characters in life in the smoke.

For men, cigarettes have first meant barbaric culture and lower society, and later became things that elite society and cultural people loved. For women, cigarettes have a more complicated meaning. It used to mean ” “Unsidine” or temperament, later became a representative symbol of a certain cultural elite woman. Nowadays, female smoking is like men’s smoking. It is a rare and ordinary thing, but in order to reach this rare and ordinary situation, there are countless changes and competitions behind it.

从“放荡”到“知性”,吸烟女性仍在经历艰难的去污名化

From “slutty” to “intellectual”, smoking women are still experiencing a difficult “de -stigmatization” process, and this process is likely to continue in a short time.

In the history of charm photography, there is a photo that has become a classic, “Suxi of Smoking”:

British photographer Nick Konat, “Sussi of Smoking”, 1988.

Each corner of this photo is full of charm. In addition to the strong and slightly treacherous background color, there are also strong light, model sitting posture, twisted wrists, special clothing made by designers, and very important points. ——The cigarettes slowly rising from Suxi’s fingertips. It can be said that this cigarette has a strong sense of modernity, adding the spiritual meaning of rebellion and freedom to the models in the photo. If there is no cigarette, she may just be another fashion model under the photographer’s lens, and now she has become the protagonist of the entire photography process and the center of aesthetic tension.

However, imagine that if in this photo, Suxi is not holding a cigarette produced by modern industrial, but a rough cigar in South America. Then whether the whole photo will have the corresponding aesthetic effect. Why can I buy it in the store now only slender and more slender cigarettes? And when we mentioned cigars or big smoke fights, the fingers with gold rings, Holmes -style peaked hats, and old men with gold rings were always popped out -anyway, they would not be young men or ladies. In the portrait of the existing writers and artists, a large number of people will appear in a cigarette, and there are very few people who choose cigars and cigarettes -let alone smoke guns, water cigarettes and snuff. In addition to the philosopher Sartre, he will choose the pipe because he firmly believes that the pipe is “existence” in philosophy, and cigarettes belong to “nothingness”.

If cigarettes are regarded as a symbol on the fixed screen, it always has too much meaning, so that its users have an extra temperament, so that those writers with cigarettes always look optimistic or sadly thinking about What to do makes women look more rebellious and individual.

从“放荡”到“知性”,吸烟女性仍在经历艰难的去污名化

Nobel Prize Poet Simerska

How does cigarettes connect with women?

At the end of the 15th century, when the Spanish explorer arrived in the South American continent, they found a magic grass called Tobacco in the Indians. The locals dried this plant and then rolled in the palm leaves. In many tribes, this kind of tobacco was used as a drug. It can be applied to the abdomen to treat the disease. Evil and pleasant.

Different tribes use tobacco to use different methods (some tribes only have tobacco, some tribal men and women use a large amount of tobacco, and some tribes completely reject tobacco). When tobacco, some tribes use palm leaves, and tribes use hollow ones. Plant stems absorb. But it is certain that before the Spanish and Portuguese navigator brought tobacco back to Europe, its shape was far more rough than the current cigar. Even the most exquisite diameter exceeded the finger.

1924 Monbo Road Advertising. At the time of the first appearance, Marlord Road focused on the women’s market and designed filtering to make smoking look more elegant. Cigarettes are also more feminine in form.

After being introduced in Europe, tobacco quickly became popular in Spain, Portugal, the Netherlands, France and other countries. Due to the large demand, planting and import volume, the price of tobacco fell rapidly, becoming daily necessities that ordinary people can also consume. Although in different countries, the attitude towards tobacco is still a popular history of the public with the class of high society. Especially in Spain with a conservative atmosphere of Catholicism, when tobacco was introduced for the first time in the end of the 15th century, it caused religious debate. The church called this foreign product “black mass”. Rodrigo De Jerez (this person is a sailor under Columbus, considered to be the first smoker in Europe) in 1498 due to smoking on the streets of Barcelona, ​​on the grounds of “performing monsters”, and was being “performed” Prisoned in prison for ten years.

从“放荡”到“知性”,吸烟女性仍在经历艰难的去污名化

However, even if the Spanish Church, which is known for conservatives, cannot prevent the trend of secularization, especially when the priests in the marginal areas start to smoke in Macas, tobacco finally passes from the sailor and other stratums to the public. At that time, the Europeans were about the same as the Indians, either sucking cigarettes, or using a modified version of cigarette gun, only French exception.

As France, who admires the aristocratic temperament, they cannot accept smoking like barbaric Indians, and they only accept snuff. Moreover, until the 18th century, women smoking in France was regarded as a taboo. In contrast, French men smoking were included in the etiquette norms of nobles. When Spain accepted the impact of the Enlightenment from France, the Spaniards also began to abandon smoke guns and adopt a snuff method. However, in the subsequent French Revolution, the aristocratic snuff opposite began to prevail. The emperors and nobles like to smoke snuff, while the people chose cigarettes and cigars, which symbolized the values ​​of new eras such as fraternity and freedom. However, in the 19th century, the cost of cigars was continuously rising at the same time as popularization, so the French began to use paper cigarettes. It was more fine, flammable, convenient, and more modern than cigars. Compared with cigars, it also looks lighter, so cigars began to become a symbol of men, while cigarette rolls gradually feminine.

In contrast, after the end of World War II. During World War II, American soldiers brought cigarettes such as Wanbao Road, Camel, and Lai Cai to the world. After the war, Marlboro also changed sales ideas, and began to use the image of denim or a strong man on the poster. Whether men or women, cigarettes make the gender characteristics of that era more obvious.

Talking about the specific female smoking image, it also needs to be traced back to literature and film and television works. In 1848, the word “cigarette” appeared in the article of French poet Podlair. In “1848 Salon”, Podlair turned the positive term Le Cigare into a negative word Cigarette with-ETTE, so This implies the soft trait of cigarettes. 15 years ago, it was the first time that French female writer George Sang made such a change. After George Sang, the hint between cigarettes and women began to be born. In a large number of French literary works in the 19th century, she wanted to make a female character look evil, waves, and seductive. The best way was to write her and cigarettes to write Together.

Among these works, the “Carmen” shaped by French novelist Merimi has the greatest influence.

Merimi’s novel itself is full of exotic and evil styles. As the most well -known role he created, Carmen is full of unskilled martial arts and strong freedom. As in the novel, she seems to be a beautiful beauty. The devil can make the actor fall in love with her instantly and reverse the soul. It can also be said that he will leave without care about the threat of death. And cigarettes have also become a accessories that set off Kamen’s personal charm. At that time, women’s smoking was still taboo. Men should not smoke in front of women, but Kamen likes the taste of cigarettes very much. With the popularity of “Carmen” drama, this charming character also made cigarettes stain the Kamen -style feminine color: freedom, rebellion, passion.

“Carmen” became synonymous with “female smokers”, and also brought cigarettes to Jeep for colors -in the novel, Carmen is a beautiful jeep girl. In the jeep culture, women are often free and unrestrained. With a little bleak nature, they can bathe in the open -air rivers and don’t care whether there is a male onlooker next to them. This was quite bold in France at that time. In “Fireworks”, Nurieus, a contemporary history professor in France, believes that Carmen is the first female smoker in the history of literature. While becoming synonymous with “coquettish people”, she also makes cigarettes become waves and temptations. Symbol.

“Carmen” stills

From the 18th to 19th centuries, a large number of literary works related to social customs were born in France. Cigarettes have never been absent in these works, but they are not associated with legitimate love relationships. Most of them appear in the hands of prostitutes. When the man is abandoned or questioned by the police, he usually leaned on the corner to pump a branch Cigarettes, so are men. Prostitutes were often called “smoking women” at the time. Women smoke in public in public. They always look erotic. This situation did not improve before the 1920s, thanks to the women’s liberation campaign, American tobacco advertisements and Hollywood movies.

Chanel who holds cigarettes, Audrey Hepburn, after the end of World War I, European women also began to seek their own liberation. Women like to cut their hair, wear long skirts, and obsessed with lengthened cigarettes. Just like getting rid of socks and bra, smoking has become a symbolic behavior. A large number of athletes, writers and artists also advocate women’s bold smoking and regard this as a charm. The picture shows Coco Chanel who holds cigarettes.

Audrey Hepburn from Hollywood is an absolutely modern, elegant, and global female image. In Hollywood movies, cigarettes are never absent, and it plays the role of “temperament” in the movie. As a woman who loves cigarettes very much, Audrey Hepburn has exerted this temperament to the extreme.

Audrey Hepburn, holding a long cigarette pole.

In “Breakfast of Tiffany”, the cigarette gun in Audrey Hepburn is like a magic staff, and many years later, it became Hepburn’s image logo. Later, when people imitated Audrey Hepburn, they all took one in their hands. That magic stick became Hepburn’s ontology. Just like the “existence” that Sartre thought about and “nothingness” philosophical problems, the iconic retro long smoke rod has become Hepburn’s existence. It defines Hepburn and it is also defined by Hepburn’s charm. This kind of long smoke rod is both a symbol of the times and the ultimate of cigarettes. Imagine that if the 50 -year -old American Western Gold Mine owner holds a slender cigarette rod, the picture will lose its beauty and it will be very contrary to harmony. Essence

从“放荡”到“知性”,吸烟女性仍在经历艰难的去污名化

The “stigma history” of Chinese women’s smoking

In China on the other side of the mainland, the development of tobacco is also related to women. However, this is not due to a literary work. The connection between Chinese women and tobacco comes more from reality.

“Fireworks”

从“放荡”到“知性”,吸烟女性仍在经历艰难的去污名化

Author: (French)

Translator: Chen Rui Li Min

Version: Life · Reading · Xinzhi Sanlian Bookstore October 2013

从“放荡”到“知性”,吸烟女性仍在经历艰难的去污名化

Tobacco spread to Fujian, China through the Philippines as early as the 16th century.

In 1611, a Fujian native named Yao Travel recorded the condition of tobacco planting in his notes. In the end of the 17th century, tobacco has become extremely popular in China, to elite people, to the people of Li Min, both men and women have the habit of smoking tobacco. The poet of the Qing Dynasty wrote, “Today, there are no men and women, no one is not addicted.”

It is incredible that even some children in the Qing Dynasty had the habit of sucking and smoke. “When the children can hold the cigarette cylinders, they teach them to smoke.” At that time, parents believed that smoking could help children resist the disease. To strengthen the body, and women smoke are naturally not rare. This is related to the custom of the Manchu nobleman who likes smoking bags, and it is also related to Jiangnan’s humanities that tobacco is beneficial to physical health. For a long time, Chinese medicine has firmly believed that tobacco has a medicine, which is harmless to human health, and is known as a puzzle that can cure all diseases.

But in ancient China, women’s smoking also had many taboos. One of them cannot smoke public in public in public, otherwise it will be regarded as not inspection and damage to the name.

In traditional Chinese culture, the association between smoking women and sexual hints has a long history. In the Qinglou in the Ming Dynasty, Jiangnan prostitutes will use cigarettes to entertain guests and talk to the people to talk with the coming to banquet. After the death of the Ming Dynasty, the Qing army launched a large -scale slaughter in the Jiangnan area. A few years later, the rulers of the Qing Dynasty began to rebuild Jiangnan, and they also rebuilt the culture of Qinglou. The customs of recruiting cigarettes as a etiquette to entertain guests restored their vitality. Some researchers pointed out that for the entertainment venues at that time The body and mind also have the love of the Ming dynasty. Regardless of whether the plot of the Ming Dynasty’s memory of the Ming dynasty quickly dissipated, the connection between cigarettes and prostitutes and sexual cues still retained. “Fireworks” became the euphemism of prostitutes. In the Qing Dynasty novels such as “Children’s Heroes”, it also describes the connection between cigarettes and sex. Men also believe that cigarettes have auxiliary functions.

During the Ming and Qing Dynasties, painting female smoking paintings.

从“放荡”到“知性”,吸烟女性仍在经历艰难的去污名化

American scholar Dai Zhenlan once analyzed the chastity culture of the Qing Dynasty. He described several ugly rape cases: a woman was only regarded by strange men as a signal that strange men were willing to have an unfair relationship because of smoking at their doorsteps, so as to enter the room rape. When her husband saw his wife smoking, she suspected that she had a treacherous relationship with others, which caused a murderous case.

从“放荡”到“知性”,吸烟女性仍在经历艰难的去污名化

But as opposed to this situation, it is another identity of smoking women: elite women. In the Ming and Qing dynasties, most women smoked, and the difference between the upper and the bottom layer was the occasion of smoking. Smoking in front of strangers in public places is a sloppy and underlying behavior, and smoking in private occasions is regarded as a good education, especially the literati class. They like to smoke with women in elegant space, talk about elegance, and use it to use the elegance, and use it to use it, and use it to use the elegance. “Fireworks” is a poem for the theme. As for why ordinary women have no way to smoke in private space like elite women, there are various objective factors. For example, ordinary women can only live in a humble house. There are no girl -in -law and no literati rally. Even if you smoke in a private boudoir, the taste of cigarettes will permeate the entire house. It is much more spacious.

“History of Chinese Tobacco”

Author: (US) Ban Kaile

从“放荡”到“知性”,吸烟女性仍在经历艰难的去污名化

Translator: Huangfu Qiu Shi

Version: Peking University Press in July 2018

Anyway, the two split identities of smoking women have been maintained, and they have been stigmatized in different periods. The Confucian Guardian insisted that smoking was a manifestation of “bad women”, and a moral woman should never smoke. After the Qing Dynasty, during the period of the Republic of China, smoking women were still divided into poles, either a Shanghai prostitute who was on the waves, or modern women who had a modern and elite education. Most of the recent centuries, smoking women have ushered in a period of more stigma. Smoking has begun to be linked to judgment with luxury erosion, bourgeois complexes, non -observance of rules, and poisoning ethnic values.

从“放荡”到“知性”,吸烟女性仍在经历艰难的去污名化

According to statistics, during the period after the founding of the People’s Republic of China, the proportion of Chinese women’s smoking fell to a record low of 3%, which was in sharp contrast to the situation of almost everyone smoking during the Ming and Qing Dynasties. If the consideration of smoking is harmful and healthy, it is a good choice for the body, but the behavior of smoking ban should not be based on “stigma”. The concept of “smoking = inaccurate women” has affected China for a long time. In addition to concepts, smoking is also closely linked to modern Chinese women. In the period when women’s status is low, their personal income can only be brought to Raising a family, no financial ability to bear the expenses of tobacco.

Therefore, when today’s young women start to pick up cigarettes again, like the photo at the beginning of the article, it has a lot of meaning, including the spirit of free rebellion, independent social status, and simple aesthetic charm.

Of course, we don’t need to give too much interpretation to the “smoking” behavior, although it looks like a move that is contrary to the “modern smoking society”, it always has some meaning behind the image -but it is like a person like a person At a certain moment, you need to drink a glass of wine to solve your sorrows, or feel the same as life, smoking is just one of many daily behaviors. Compared to the expectation of “the era of popular smoking has passed”, we are more willing to say “the era when the public gives smokers to a certain image has passed.” In the end, a more comfortable state may be: let smoking become a rare and common choice, a thing that is only related to the health of the people present, a move that has nothing to do with any cultural label.