Riesling (Riesling) is Germany’s “national treasure” white grape varieties, one of the most aromatic grape varieties around the world, wines, often with lemon and citrus aroma, delicate taste, which also Riesling years old with gasoline. Riesling is a versatile grape varieties, either as a refreshing dry white wine, late harvest sweet white, can also be brewed into noble rot wine and ice wine.
The origin 1, grape varieties Riesling
Riesling is one of the oldest breeds in Germany, in 1435 there are records of historical documents in cultivation Riesling Rheingau (Rheingau) producing areas. At present the exact origin of Riesling is not yet conclusive, many scholars believe may have originated in Riesling Rheingau region, there is another part of Riesling scholars believe may have originated in Alsace (Alsace) and other areas, since 1348 documented the Riesling growth in Alsace.
In 1998, DNA testing found: Baigao Wei Adams (Gouais Blanc) is the parent Riesling. Baigao Wei Sri Lanka is one of the oldest grape varieties in Western Europe, between Chardonnay (Chadonnay), Gamay (Gamay Noir), Albert Ling (Elbling) and especially the people in Darfur (Furmint) with the presence of kinship with each other.
2 difference, Riesling and other varieties Welschriesling
Riesling is often mistaken for the Welschriesling (Welschriesling), Italian Riesling (Riesling Italico), Australia’s commander Ray Klein (Clare Riesling), South Africa’s open Prairie commander (Cape Riesling) and Gray Riesling in California (Gray Riesling) is the same grape varieties, in fact, no relationship between them.
Riesling is different in each country title, known as Rhine Riesling in Australia; is known as Weisser Riesling in South Africa; is called Johannisberg Riesling in California.
3, Riesling grape and wine characteristics
Riesling is an aromatic white grape varieties with high acidity, cold and frost resistant ability, it also allows Riesling called cold areas of the preferred grape varieties. Riesling growing strong, very energetic, even though the yield up to 10 t / ha, the quality of its grapes can still maintain a high level. Riesling small fruit, usually more late in cold areas, susceptible to noble rot (Botrytis).
Riesling precocious than in warm weather areas, causing the wine is usually plain simple, unsophisticated complex; in cold regions, Riesling has a long maturity, harvest time span from September up to December (Northern Hemisphere ), may be a dry white wine, sweet white, botrytis, and other types of ice, the whole fruit flavor substance concentration, acidity aggregation, the wine has a fine lead strong fragrance like floral, citrus fruit, honey and minerals incense, etc., while the high acidity makes a strong aging potential.
Riesling wines are generally lower alcohol content, wine is light, delicate structure, not suitable for oak aging, and thus become one of the world’s most exquisite white wine. Riesling vintage after bottling will evolve out of a very subtle scent, this fragrance is mainly derived from the compound TDN. TDN is a falling isoprene (Norisoprenoid) derivative content in wine is typically below the detection threshold, but to bring the wine to give more complex layering. After bottling aged 2-3 years, TDN content is relatively higher, so show some kerosene taste.
4, the classic Riesling wine type
Riesling harvest large time span, while tingible botrytis, may be a dry white wine, late harvest sweet white wine and ice botrytis four major types.
(1) dry white
: With a rich lemon and orange aroma, taste more refined and delicate, Riesling, Germany, Australia Clare Valley (Clare Valley) and Eaton Valley (Eden Valley) dry white is most famous. In addition, Alsace, France (Alsace), Austria Wachau (Wachau), Cape Valley (Kamptal) and Krems valley (Kremstal) and other areas also produce high-quality dry white Riesling. In Germany, dry white Riesling usually marked “Trocken” on wine labels.
(2) sweet white late harvest
: After Riesling mature, not harvested immediately, but will continue to keep the grapes dry on the vine before harvest concentrated brewing. Riesling late harvest sweet white flowers with attractive generally, peach, citrus and honey aroma, taste elegant and delicate, because with enough to balance the residual sugar and high acid to aging great potential, such as Germany late pick wine (Spatlese) and wine-by-string selection (Auslese) and so on.
(3) botrytis wine
: Riesling susceptible to botrytis, the noble rot wine has led to the sweet-scented osmanthus, acacia and fruity, but with a rich nuts, dried fruit, honey and vanilla aroma, great aging potential, can be stored for hundreds of years. Well-known wines are: Germany and Austria by grain selection of wines (Beerenauslese) and dry grape wine selection (Trockenbeerenauslese), Alsace-by-grain selection of noble rot wines (SGN, Selection de Grains Nobles) and so on.
(4) ice wine
: Riesling hanging on the vine until the freezing temperature is below minus 7-8 ℃ after harvest brewing. Ice wine with a rich honey and flowers, taste sweet and moving, great aging potential, well-known wines are: Germany, Austria and Icewine.
5, producing well-known Riesling
Riesling is Germany’s “national treasure” grape varieties in the mid-19th century to the 20th century, German Riesling has been acclaimed acreage is also rising. To the 1960s, the global epidemic of massive oak flavor of wine and wine, Riesling this time out, and the quality of the wine becomes uneven. To the late 20th century, German Riesling wine back on the stage, with a total planted area of about 23,000 hectares, are planted in various areas of Germany and can be brewed into a dry white, sweet white, botrytis and ice, such as Moselle ( Mosel), Rheinhessen (Rheinhessen), Rheingau (Rheingau), Pfalz (Pfalz), that He (Nahe) and Wu Wittenberg (Wurttemberg) and other well-known areas.
Moselle is one of the top German Riesling-producing areas, its vineyard built on the south-facing steep slopes and unique slate soil can absorb heat from the sun and reflect sunlight, making Riesling grapes fully ripe. Meanwhile, Moselle damp morning fog, plus noon plenty of light, providing an ideal environment conditions for noble rot wine brewing. Mosel Riesling acreage is about 5,400 hectares, Riesling wines often with flint and mineral flavors, light bodied, high acidity, taste fresh and not greasy.
: Yimu winery (Weingut Egon Muller), Schaefer winery (Weingut Willi Schaefer) and Ma Dingka present winery (Martin Kerpen) and the like. Riesling wine produced Yimu enjoy the “King of Riesling of Germany” in the world, particularly in the dry selection of Portuguese wine and ice wine is most precious, ordinary bottle of ice wine New Year market price of more than 1,000 euros, Germany is the most expensive Icewine. The dry grape wine selection is amazing to shoot high in the annual auction.
Rheingau is par with the Moselle Riesling, Germany’s top wine regions, although the wine-growing area of only about 2,500 hectares, but more than 80% Riesling varieties. High Rhine Assmannshausen vineyards were located in the Rhine town of North Shore (Assmannshausen) and the town of Wiesbaden (Wiesbaden), facing south, you can enjoy sun bathing. Phase Bimozeer, Rheingau Riesling wine style is more powerful, concise, more full-bodied.
: John Hills (Schloss Johannisberg), Robert Weir winery (Robert Weil), Peng Hoon Chateau (Schloss Schonborn), Brewer winery (Georg Breuer) and Alvarez winery (Weingut Josef Leitz) and so on.
Rheinhessen is located in the Rhine Valley, west and that He (Nahe) River adjacent to the north, bordered on the east of the Rhine. Rheinhessen is Germany’s largest wine-producing areas, soil types in red sandstone mainly Riesling wines produced from ordinary table wines to sparkling wines, readily available, usually with a delicate aroma of citrus and peaches, also has some aging potential.
Rheinhessen most famous export wine is “Our Lady of the milk”, 167 villages are almost 99% in the brewing, wine occupies the entire German wine imports by 50%.
: Blue Fairy (Blue Nun) by the more than 200-year history of the West tournament winery (Sichel) in 1921 to create a wine brand, was once Germany’s largest wine export brand, swept the world in the 20th century, 50-80 years, and now blue fairy has become a low-quality low-cost brand.
Pfalz Riesling acreage is about 5,500 hectares, accounting for 20% of the total acreage of the areas, but Riesling has a very important position in the region. Fildes close to the French Alsace areas, the climate is relatively mild, light and relatively abundant, so the production of Riesling wine Bimozeer more full bodied, high alcohol content (about 12%), more ornate style but delicate sense of lack.
: 巴塞曼乔丹 winery (Dr. von Bassermann-Jordan), Boolean Brooklyn Wu Fu
Dr. winery (Dr. Burklin-Wolf), the Portuguese wood winery (Okonomierat Rebholz) wineries and Cator (Muller-Catoir) and so on.
⑤ that He
He was producing micro-climate and diverse geography, Riesling planted only about a quarter of the total acreage of grape-producing areas, but the lead Riesling wine has excellent balance. Compared to several other areas, and that He is not particularly well-known, but the areas of Riesling late harvest sweet white quality is very commendable.
: Du Hefu winery (Weingut Donnhoff), Divo winery (Schlossgut Diel) and Frobenius Ridge winery (Schafer Frohlich) and the like.
(2) France Alsace
Alsace is the only French will be a Riesling wine grape varieties as legal areas, which Alsace Riesling is the most widely planted grape varieties of the area, of around 3,400 hectares, accounting for about 20% of the total area of vineyards. . Alsace belong to the cool climate of Continental Bank, autumn grapes ripe for a long time, plenty of sunshine, low rainfall and rich soil is brewed top Riesling wines foundation.
And lightweight German Riesling is different, Alsace Riesling wines dry white wine the most famous, the wine with a very seductive fragrance, taste very dry, high alcohol content, full bodied, high acidity, with a clear taste of minerals, the endemic characteristic areas of snarky. At the same time, dry climate Alsace Riesling grapes will rot risk to a minimum, and fully guarantee the maturity of the grapes, thus creating a high-quality type of late harvest sweet wines (Vendage Tardive) and by grain selection of sweet botrytis wine.
: Hugo Sons winery (Hugel & Fils), Trimbach family winery (Maison Trimbach) and hung Bu Lieshen winery (Domaine Zind-Humbrecht) and the like.
Austria is one of the few countries able to produce high-quality Riesling wines, the Riesling acreage of about 1,900 hectares, is the second white grape varieties. Austrian Riesling wines are mostly dry and delicate unique flavor, is one of the country’s most exquisite wines, and Riesling in Austria is also brewing as noble rot wine and ice wine, was undoubtedly the most famous areas of Austria ( Lower Austria) Wachau valley, the valley and the adjacent Cape, Krems Valley and burgundy blue (Burgenland).
: Wachau Riesling is producing a second white grape varieties, mostly planted in very steep slopes high, barren soil places gneiss and granite-based. Riesling Wachau wine region is lighter than Veltliner (Gruner Veltliner) bodied, rich taste, acidity is even more authentic. Riesling wine aroma is very complex, both honeysuckle and apple blossom scent, but also ripe peach and lime flavor, it also comes with a long aftertaste savory mineral flavor.
Cape Valley and Krems valley
: Production and the Wachau Valley are similar quality and style of wine, but the price is often more close to the people.
: Located in southeastern Austria, and Hungary border, highlighting the production quality Riesling sweet wine, such as BA, TBA noble rot wine and ice wine and so on.
: Gelai Shi winery (Weingut Kracher), Bude Mel winery (Brundlmayer), Herzberg winery (Hirtzberger) and Bo Gao Castle (Schloss Gobelsburg) and so on.
Riesling acreage in Hungary is about 1,300 hectares, mainly in the south of Kun Sark (Kunsag), Ke Songge Ran (Csongrad) and Tolna County (Tolna) and other areas. In Hungary Riesling can brew dry, it can also brew sweet wine.
: Buser winery (Bussay), Chateau Otto (Otto Legli) and Chateau Jiese Fu (Jozsef Szentesi) and the like.
Riesling acreage in Italy only about 600 hectares, mainly concentrated in the relatively cool in the Alto Adige (Alto Adige) and Friuli (Friuli) areas. Riesling wines from Alto Adige fragrance charming, very fine, with most of the huge Italian white wine style differences, Friuli Riesling wine produced in the same excellent quality.
: Kong Fu winery (Kuenhof di Peter Pliger), Svanberg winery (Schwanburg) and MG winery (Jermannn) and so on.
Riesling acreage in Spain is very small, only about 100 hectares, mainly concentrated in Catalonia (Catalunya) and Castilla La Mancha (Castilla-La Mancha) and other areas. Riesling Spain’s exquisite delicacy of feeling and poor, far less than Germany and Austria, so the lack of international visibility.
(7) Other European countries
: Riesling acreage of about 1,200 hectares, mainly planted in southern Moravia (Morava) areas and southeastern provinces, Riesling wines are more excellent quality.
: Austria is located in the north, continental climate, its Riesling acreage of about 1,000 hectares, compared with excellent quality wines, such as Germany Yimu Winery (Egon Muller) on outstanding wine brewing Riesling Slovakia.
: Riesling planted area of about 700 hectares, mainly concentrated in the 斯塔耶斯卡 (Stajerska Slovenija) and Baker Mujie (Prekmurje) areas.
: Riesling is Croatia’s sixth largest planted grape varieties, with a total planted area of about 1,100 hectares.
Republic of Moldova
: Riesling acreage is about 1,300 hectares, out of brewing wine quality than normal.
Early 19th century, European immigrants who fled from persecution to the nearby Barossa Valley (Barossa), but also the Riesling brought here. Australia Riesling acreage is about 4,400 hectares, is in addition to Chardonnay outside the most famous white grape varieties. Riesling is ideal for the nearby Clare Valley and Eaton Valley climate, produced dry Riesling wines have the highest quality, fully comparable to the German Riesling.
: From the Barossa Valley only one hour, the majority concentrated in the 200-500 vineyard altitudes, warm climate relatively hot summer afternoon breeze will blow, thereby adjusting the temperature during the day, effectively extending the maturity of the grapes time. The climate is very conducive to mature Riesling phenolics and maintain a certain acidity, which have some wine and wine complexity. Clare Valley Riesling is dry Riesling on behalf of, the most famous is without oak brewing style, logo features that lemon and citrus fruit sour and exciting dynamic. Young Riesling acidity make teeth often numb, but still very attractive, can not help but want to drink a second mouth. After 5-6 years old, Riesling acidity jump start gradually weakened, even more balanced and soft bodied in the mouth there will be a mellow taste, very tasty.
: Australia’s first Riesling producing areas, until now, Eaton Valley is still brewing Riesling wine-based. Eaton Valley Riesling wines are usually rich aroma of limes and other fruits, and there is a charming little flowers and mineral aromas, taste fragrant, fine wine, very refreshing. After aging, Eaton Valley Riesling wine can produce jam, baked and honeysuckle flavors charming, good aging Riesling need 10 years to achieve the best tasting time.
: Gross Winery (Grosset) in Australia’s famous wine region of the Clare Valley, the southern end, one of the finest wineries in Australia. Riesling wines are produced here white wine of Australia’s leading benchmark. Gross winery vineyards using organic cultivation methods, without the machine work, wait until the grapes reach optimal maturity, will be picked. Chateau meticulous management to retain the original character of grapes, which can brew internationally acclaimed and the most unique style of wine.
(9) United States
Riesling are grown in the US, such as California, Oregon, Washington and New York, etc., each producing wine styles are also different.
: Riesling acreage is about 1,500 hectares, most of Riesling wines are produced here it was light, but there are some wineries produce Riesling wine is very delicate, very strong aging potential, such as Napa Valley (Napa Valley) that’s Mengte Lai wineries (Chateau Montelena), Smith Bismarck Road Winery (Smith Madrone), Mendocino County wineries Daishi (Dashe Cellars), Esther Grenadines Chateau (Esterlina) and so on.
: Cool and cloudy weather is perfect for Riesling grape varieties are grown, its planting area of about 340 hectares, Riesling wines fruity taste is more complex and delicate. However, due to lack of Oregon Riesling international market, so far as the cultivation of Pinot Noir producing areas high.
: Is the nation’s most outstanding areas of Riesling, Riesling wines fruity, delicate taste, from dry, semi-dry to sweet can be brewed. Many German manufacturers and local wineries jointly brewing Riesling wine, more and more high quality of its wines, has also been recognized by consumers, thereby increasing the planting area, from 770 ha in 1999 increased to 2,560 hectares in 2011 , more than tripled.
New York state
: Riesling acreage is about 270 hectares, most wines are sweet, excellent quality and more.
Canada is another important producing areas of Riesling ice wine. 1794 accident invention Icewine from Germany Franconia (Franconia) winemaker, until the 19th century, Rheingau wine region division began consciously brewing ice wine. Since then visible, Canada is the birthplace of Riesling ice wine. In addition, further brew Riesling dry white wine, which is more delicate taste sour cool.
(11) New Zealand
New Zealand Riesling acreage in 2001 was only about 490 ha, now grown to about 920 hectares. New Zealand except Riesling Chardonnay and Sauvignon Blanc outside the third largest grape, Riesling wine produced from the dry, semi-dry to sweet everything which Marlborough (Marlborough) and Nelson (Nelson) and the like The most well-known areas. Today, New Zealand Riesling Late Harvest type of sweet white quality higher and higher, occupies its own place on the world stage.
: Dry Creek Winery (Dry River), Futura to the winery (Forrest Estate), Fula Ming Han winery (Framingham) and Palliser winery (Palliser Estate) and so on.
Riesling acreage is only about 110 hectares, mainly in Mendoza (Mendoza) areas, where the climate is more suitable for high altitude also Riesling, but the overall quality Riesling wines in Argentina than normal, enough acidity prominent, delicate insufficient.
Chile hardly Riesling acreage is only about 30 hectares, mainly in the Bio Bio Valley (Bio Bio) of Kenuo Su winery (Cono Sur) and Kuqi Nuo winery near Santiago (Santiago) is (Cousino within Macul) of vineyards.
(14) South Africa
Riesling acreage in South Africa is about 220 hectares, mainly in Stellenbosch (Stellenbosch) and Robertson (Robertson) areas. Top Riesling wines come from very cold Constantia (Constantia), Elgin (Elgin) and Swat Hill (Swartberg) and other areas.
6, nearly 20 years of innovation Riesling wine
50-80 years of the 20th century, German Riesling mainly cheap price and high residual sugar and swept the world, but in the past 20 years, the German producer of Riesling conducted a number of innovations, allowed more diverse types of wine , more and more excellent quality.
(1) increase the dry white wine
: More and more wineries are not aware that the more sweet Riesling better, but dry Riesling wine better reflect the characteristics of the breed characteristics, endemic.
(2) increase the collection of wine making
: Collection of wine can be dry, but also for semi-dry, usually fruity, delicate taste and low alcohol content. Wall Lights Chateau (Schloss Vollrads) Dr. Hepp (Rowald Hepp) said: “The low-alcohol wine collection can bring the feeling of pleasure, it does not cover the flavor of food, but also give consumers real sex, pleasure and variety and specificity of the year. ” Today, the wine collection of more and more young consumers.
(3) improve the quality Riesling Seeckt (Sket) of
: German Seeckt is very popular all over the world a sparkling wine, a growing number of wineries determined to Seeckt brewing high-quality sparkling wine with the “traditional method.”
(4) try to use oak barrels Riesling
: Fildes Wal-winning winery (Weingut von Winning) for the first time in 2008 Riesling wine into oak barrels for aging, many wineries have begun to try this, and I hope more full-bodied brew aroma, taste more complex Riesling wine.
(5) improve the quality of high-quality sweet Riesling
: Germany’s most high-quality sweet Riesling wines are mainly BA, TBA and Icewine three categories, Today, many wineries committed to improving the selection of wine by train and other sweet wine quality. Which 马库斯梅丽特 (Markus Molitor) brewed liquor is obtained by string selection Robert Parker (Robert Parker) is out of evaluation.
7, Riesling wine Catering
(1) Dry White Riesling
: Drinking temperature is preferably 10-12 deg.] C, it can be used with seafood, sushi and vegetable salads, but also with dishes such as Sichuan and Hunan; Riesling aged with fine fine dry white may be more suitable for seafood, such as Jiangsu cuisine fried crab meat, shrimp Longjing Zhejiang cuisine and Cantonese steamed sea bass and so on.
(2) sweet white late harvest Riesling
: Drinking temperature is suitably 8-10 ℃, can be used with spicy food, fruit platter, lobster, scallops, fish, avocado, crab, foie gras and goat cheese.
(3) botrytis Riesling wine and ice wine
: Drinking temperature is preferably 6-8 deg.] C, it can be used with cheese, caramel and apple pie desserts and other desserts.
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