FoodSterilizera.com

Food Sterilizer,Food Processing Machinery Parts,Fish Processing Machines

FoodSterilizera.com

Food Sterilizer,Food Processing Machinery Parts,Fish Processing Machines

Summary:

The Metropolitan Institute is an important supervisory agency established by the Ming Dynasty. The selection of the monitoring of the monitoring of the Ming Dynasty was obviously different from ordinary officials. In addition to the general requirements of general integrity, it also values ​​its “straight” and “bone” personality. In terms of qualifications, during the orthodox years of the Ming Yingzong, the regulations that broke the new officials who were not allowed to grant Royal History. After the middle of the Ming Dynasty, the monitoring of Yushi chose “more people”, and the “constitution” and “treaty” that managed the history of the royal history became an empty text. Continuous weakening, this is an important reason why politics in the Ming Dynasty became increasingly decayed and continued to decline.

Key words:

Ming Dynasty/Duchauan/Supervisory Royal History/Selection/Political Treatment

About the Author:

Liu Xiangxue, a professor and doctoral supervisor of the School of History, Culture and Tourism, Guangxi Normal University, and the research direction is Mingshi (Guilin 541001).

Moderator’s language (Nan Bingwen):

Professor Liu Xiangxue, an expert in Ming History, published in this issue, conducted specific and in -depth inspections and in -depth inspections and in -depth inspections and in -depth inspections and in -depth inspections and in -depth inspections and in -depth inspections and changes in the effectiveness of monitoring the effectiveness of the Ming Dynasty. The analysis has deepened the understanding of this important group in the Ming Dynasty. In the article, it is sharply pointed out that from the Ming Dynasty to the decline of the Ming Dynasty, the gradual collapse of the monitoring system is one of the important reasons. This will be extremely important for today and future generations. Professor Xu Guoli, an expert in regional history, compared a large number of digital statistics with the mutual comparison of different regions. Continuously increased, the second was that this pressure continued to intensify in the middle of the Qing Dynasty, and the lack of local land in the local area was also a factor that caused the contradictions of people and earth to be more sharp and unwavering. This article also specifically pointed out that after the large number of Huizhou people who went out to business after the middle of the Ming Dynasty and the degree of changes in their professional view value orientation, they must not be overly estimated. This article provides an important reference for correctly understanding the social situation of Hui Shang’s hometown in the Ming and Qing Dynasties. (Special professor of Langfang Teachers College, senior professor of Nankai University)

The Metropolitan Institute was an important supervisory agency established in the Ming Dynasty and was reorganized from the Yu Shitai of the Yuan Dynasty. Different people, the Yu Shitai of the Yuan Dynasty was in charge of Dr. Yu Shi. After the Ming Dynasty was changed to Duchangyuan, the Chiefs had left and right capitals, and the deputy capital royal history, the dundu royal history, and other positions were set up, and the thirteen monitoring of the royal history. At present, the research on the Ming Dynasty’s supervision system is mainly discussed in the aspects of the establishment of the judicial power, operating mechanisms, functions, and functions of the Ming Dynasty Institute, as well as the construction of the Ming Dynasty’s supervision system, constitutional outline, and inspection and supervision. The selection system of the monitoring of the monitoring of the capital system involves not many. Due to the special status of the Ming Dynasty’s monitoring Royal Shi in the Ming Dynasty’s bureaucratic system and the influence of the concept of the rule of the rulers of the Ming Dynasty, the selection of the Ming Dynasty monitoring Royal History officials has experienced some complex evolution in different periods, and the political movement of the Ming Dynasty politics is produced. A greater influence. Here, the author intends to make a special discussion about this issue.

1. The setting of the capital and the evolution of the monitoring of the Royal Shipuki

The establishment of the Metropolitan Institute is the product of the gradual development of central power in the Ming Dynasty. In the first year of Wu in the first year of Wu, Zhu Yuanzhang was inherited by the Yuan Dynasty and set up the Royal Shitai to Congyin Yamen. Due to the beginning of the system of the early Ming Dynasty, the setting of the central administrative institutions was mostly followed by the previous generation. With the unified completion of the Ming Dynasty, Ming Taizu made a big reform of the ruling institutions left by the previous generation based on his concept of governing the country. A change process.

According to the meta -system, the Royal Shitai is tied with Zhongshu Province and the Privy Court, and is one of the highest administrative agencies. The so -called “Lizhong Shu province is in general affairs, Lijishi Treasure Institute is in charge of soldiers, and Li Shitai is used to correction a hundred divisions.” ② The Yuan Dynasty also attached great importance to Yu Shitai. Yuan Shizu publicly declared: “Zhongshu is left hand, the right hand of the secret, the right hand of the secret, the Yushitai is a doctor’s two hands. When the military affairs were extremely busy, the military affairs were extremely busy, and there was no time to take care of the reform of the rule of the rule. Therefore, the Yu Shitai set up at this time has a very prominent political status in the early Ming Dynasty. Ming Taizu said that “the three national government established the country, the chief affairs of the Chinese book, the governor of the government, the military, and the patchwork of the royal history.” ④ During the period, the officials of Yu Shitai also participated in the formulation of various laws in the early Ming Dynasty. The historically referred to as “the Chinese book province and the Yushi Shita ministers entered the Da Ming order and ordered the world. Also. Light to teach first, and the laws are in the future. ‘”⑤ they played an important role in the establishment and unity of the Ming Dynasty, and the stability of rule.

However, the important administrative institution of Yu Shitai was dismissed in the thirteenth year of Hongwu (1380), and its rank of officials had also changed dramatically. The reasons for the Ming Dynasty’s ancestors were not clearly recorded, and there were not many relevant discussions. The author believes that Yu Shitai is closely related to the political philosophy of strengthening the central authority of strengthening the central authority in Ming Taizu. As an emperor of civilians, Zhu Yuanzhang’s consolidation of the consolidation of the imperial power. At that time, Hu Weiyong, the prime minister, had a special right, “Generally speaking, the school is in charge of killing, and the blessings of the blessings. The competition is under its door. ” ⑥ In order to cut off the threat of the imperial power, the ancestor of Ming Taizu took decisive measures to destroy Hu Weiyong’s party feathers, and at the same time made a comprehensive reform of the institutions set up in the early Ming Dynasty to meet the needs of the imperial authority. The general policy of institutional reform is the decentralization of the ministers and the emperor’s collective power. The first to reform is the province of China, which is the central book of power, and abolish the prime minister system, and the six parts of the officials, households, rituals, soldiers, prisoners, and work are directly responsible for the emperor. In this regard, Ming Taizu did not hide anything, saying that “I have been in the middle of ten years since Lin Yu, and the middle map of the Minister of the Middle School has been supplemented by the governance. , Yu Shitai uses the Ji Gang of the court. Do you want to steal the state handle and be in the law, the disadvantage of the law, the disadvantages of the gangsters, and the absence of the bullies, the words of the tongue are more evil than the friends, harming politics, and harming politics. In the crisis of the community, such as the decisive decisive of the embankment, the flames of the fire, there is a trend of heaven, and the depending on the treacherous of the gods will be destroyed. In terms of each company, the Dato Metropolitan Governor’s House also led the army and guards. ⑦

As one of the three supreme administrative agencies of the previous generation, the Royal Shitai is naturally among the reform. However, there is a process of change in this institution. When Hongwu’s prison started in the thirteenth year of Hongwu, the ancestor of Ming Tai was abolished by the imperial history. At this point, as the imperial duty of the supervisor, the rank of its rank has been reduced from one product to the second grade, and the short -term and severe fluctuations have begun.

It is worth noting that according to historical records, Ming Taizu remained the Royal Shitai in the thirteenth year of Hongwu, and in the fifteenth year of Hongwu (1382), “more inspected the capital”.明 In other words, because of the institutional reform of the early Ming Dynasty, does the Ming court have about a year, and the supervisory agency is in a vacant state? In this issue, scholars are very little concerned. From the historical records, before the official establishment of the capital, Ming Taizu seemed to have set up the courtyard to replace the royal Shitai and fulfill its supervision functions. Shi Zai “October Bingzi, the Counseling Institute, and also set up the capital of the capital, set up eight people in the monitoring capital, and divided the monitoring of the imperial history as the twelve ways.御 The monitoring of the monitoring of his belongings is “Zhejiang, Henan, Shandong, Peiping, Shanxi, Shaanxi, Huguang, Fujian, Jiangxi, Guangdong, Guangxi, and Sichuan. , Each casting seal two, one of the old man in charge of the old man, one in the Tibetan government, something is printed. ” (11) In fact, the court was originally the office institution that belongs to the sixth subjects. Some historians said, “In the case, the officials are not officials. The system of the Tang and Song dynasties, governing the door to the door, Zuo Shizhong, detailed order, sealed the chapter, do not have the relics, and Officials, the governance of the courtyard. My ancestor Emperor Gao Emperor said the official, and the order of everywhere said: ‘The lack of politics, the military and the civilians are ill, and the Xu Zhu people bluntly have no hidden’. ” (12) Because the original court belongs to the officials, the rank is the seven grades, so the newly established Duchara, its officials have the history of the imperial history and no capital, and its rank was originally determined to be the seven grades. In this regard, historical materials include “the officials of the courtyard, one person in the left and right, the rank of the seven grades, the two people, the two people, the rank from the seven grades, and the four officials.” (13) This is the lowest point of monitoring the ranking of the gates since the establishment of the Royal Shitai in the early Ming Dynasty. Because the rank is too low, it is not conducive to fully and effectively exert its supervision function. Therefore, the sixteenth year of Hongwu (1383), Dingdu Insurance Institute is the three grades. The following year is determined to be the second product. “So set the left and right imperial history, the second grade. Essence In this way, the rank of the main officials of the capital, after a short period of practice, was finally determined. The supervision system of the Metropolitanian Institute also has new content compared to before.

Second, the evolution of the standard of the monitoring Royal History selection

As a specialized agency in Zhengfeng, at the beginning of the establishment of the prosecutors, the Ming Taizu Zhu Yuanzhang was given the responsibility of the “Hundred Divisions” (15), hoping that it would play an example among hundred officials.

At the time of the establishment of Yushitai in the early Ming Dynasty, Ming Taizu, who was in pain in the late Yuan Dynasty, attached great importance to rectifying the governance of officials and had a high hopes for the effective supervision role of Yu Shitai. For the candidates for Royal Shi, the most basic requirement of Ming Taizu is “virtuous and positive”. Ming Taizu once said to monitoring Yu Shihong, Wu Zhiyu, and other words: “Yu Shigang pension, the court Ji Gang is full of this, and the inspection of Ren Youqing. Due to the adultery, there are no vacations to harm things without a vacation. “(16) Only” positive “can play a role of a hundred officials. Also known as “the person who lives in it, be ashamed to support people first, and avoid committing it.” (17) In order to select the qualified Royal History, Ming Taizu subordinates: “Royal Shitai, Punishment of Chashi is sent to Zhen Susi, and carefully select the people of Xianliang Fangzheng to Zuo.” (18) Ming Taizu even publicly announced that he was equally selected by the Han and ethnic minorities as the primary selection criteria. In the four years of Hongwu (1371), Royal Shitai introduced 40 articles of “Constitution”. Ming Taizu “enlarged it, deleted deleted, and published it to the public. The clan, the people of the light Chinese, and the southern people must not enter the wind constitution. Is it fair? The employment of the me is the only one, and the north and the south are not the north and the south. ‘”(19)

Although the ranking of supervisory officials is not very high, the power given by the impeachment given by the imperial court can easily evolve the supervision into a means of dealing with political opponents. Harm stability. In order to prevent such a situation, Ming Taizu repeatedly asked the officials of the Royal Shitai, “Bettering the evil, raising grievances, and correcting the things of the Ji Gang to the court at the end of the Yuan Dynasty. The relatives who are leaning today, will be trapped in the old age, such as the snake scorpion, self -poisoning, and the death of the death. For the heart, to show good and curb evil, discern the evil, and do not follow the cause of the practice. (20) Another containing, “There are two constitutional officials, each of which is shorter than the court. One person is very convenient, and one person is simple and slow. If you lose, resign and make it simple, the heart is covered, and the resignation is better than reason. The ministers said: ‘The other two, both lived in Fengxian. When they held fairly to correct the group, why did they add private complaints? In order to be given to those who can be given to, the Fu He is mediocre. ‘”(21) can be seen that in the minds of Ming Taizu,” holding justice “is an important criterion for monitoring Royal History.

In addition, from the beginning of the Ming Dynasty, the famous ministers such as Tang He, Liu Ji, and Zhang Yi, who had served as the post of Yu Shitai, can also see that Ming Taizu’s selection of this position. Shi Zai Liu Ji “Yuan Zhishun, to enter the scholar, except Gao Anyu, there is a sense of integrity”; (22) Zhang Yi, “Shi Tingchen serves the emperor, how harsh, overflowing it alone”; (23) Tang Tang And, “The restraint is very good.” (24) Lian Zhi, Holdings, and restrictions are all personal character appreciated by Ming Taizu. Because of this, they are placed in the important post of Royal Shitai.

However, governing the country is a complex systematic project. The choice of monitoring the history of the royal history must be standard, loyalty, and positive, and at the same time, it is also deeply influenced by the concept of governing the country. For example, the ancestor of the Ming Dynasty believes that the people of the imperial history should not be too rigid or too soft. In other words, under the premise of insisting on insisting on the practice of supervision, the political effects need to be fully considered. In the sixth year of Hongwu (1373), Huang Su, who was still in the Yushitai Player, made a criminal law, and Ming Taizu said: “The post of Liuqing should not be humiliated with details, and he is ordered to be atonement.” Too rigid, it should not be too soft. Just hurt the matter, and the soft things are abolished. I am afraid that it will be raped, so I will be charming for this. People like them and think they are wise. , Slightly disagreement, starting the dispute. Although this is strong, people are evil, they think they are not small, but they lose others. The fearlessness of the fear, how can people be in their own, how can people be wrong. ” (25)

In order to make the Duchangyuan better play the supervision function, Ming Taizu also listened to the suggestions of the ministers, further clarifying the functional division between the central institutions. At the beginning of the Ming Dynasty, the institutions were in the stage of grass, and the functions would inevitably have disadvantages such as overlap. Officials of Yu Shitai originally participated in legal affairs. After setting up the Duchangyuan, they made further adjustments and specifications on their functions. mechanism. History, Shao Wende, said that the five army interrupted affairs officials: “The Division, the Ministry of Criminal Affairs, and the Metropolitan Institute are all in the world’s criminal name, and there are four sections of the criminal part, each with Langzhong, member Wairo, and the principal. Shi Yi is divided. There are still books and servants in the ministry. The capital of the capital of the Capital Institute is “the vocational college is corrected by the hundredslums, argued that the wrongdoing, and the governor of each way, and for the emperor’s ears.” (27) The matters of correction mainly include: “All ministers are treacherous, villains structure the party, as prestige and chaos, and all kinds of officials; , Chaos into a constitution, hoped to use it, and embarrass. “(28) The form of correction is mainly to openly reveal and secret impeachment. Zhang Zou “.” (29) In order to prevent fraud, the Ming court also specifically revised the seal of the monitoring of the imperial history, saying that “a certain monitoring of the Seal of the Royal History”, and its patrol seal was “patrolling the seal of the monitoring of the royal history somewhere.” (30)

It was because of the dependence of the discipline of the capital of the capital of the Ming Dynasty, so he attached great importance to the choice of his chief of the Chiefs. During the rule of Ming Chengzu, he repeatedly emphasized that “the Royal Shi should use the people who use the clear and straight. (31) At that time, in the selection of Yushi, the officials who used the grassroots level to serve. In view of the lesson of the Yuan Dynasty, the lesson of the Yuan Dynasty, which led to the lessons of the dance and the people and the people, it was immediately stopped. For those who have academic governance, use the officials? “(32)

Since then, for a long period of time, the Ming Dynasty politicians chose the officials of the capital of the capital, which has basically formed a wide range of consensus. In the first year of Hongxi (1425), the Ministry of Public Officials “carefully selected Royal History Yi Qing Fengfeng. Also ordered the Ministry of Officials to consult as a person who thought the 13th Royal History.” (33) In June of Xuande three years (1428), Ming Xuanzong took Gu Zuo as the right capital of the right capital, and said: “The capital of the capital is sent by the court’s eyes, and the appointment of the national Ji Gang. Zheng Qingping, the policemen of the police. If you use non -people, you will be loose, and the villain will be overwhelmed. He will do his best. In recent years, he has been in Beijing. However, it cannot be corrected, and it is true with it. If this is done, what is the country and Er Zozhong, Jian is in the heart, and now he is doing it. No hard work, impeachment, noble power, no good, no good, no adultery, a few people know the fear, the disadvantages are based on the Qing leather, the deputy will be briefly appointed. “(34)

On June 25th of the sixth year of orthodox (1441), the official officials of the Ming Yingzong and the officials of the capital, said “those who are in charge of the wind, especially the righteousness, the discipline of Zhen Su, inhibit the turbidity, support the good categories, there are some categories, there are some categories. Those who are actual must be eloquent, and do not dare to dare power. Those who have flexion must be distinguished, and they do not have humbleness. (35) During the Ming Xianzong, the assessment of the Royal History of the Duchangyuan added the requirements of “exercising the caution and knowing the name of the criminal name”, saying: “The post of imperial history, so it is a virgin, the patchwork, the tribute, and the decision will be decided. Prison lawsuits, if you are wronged, you must exercise cautiously, and you must know the criminal name. “(36) However, the Ming court mainly requires integrity and fairness to the Ducharian Institute. Essence In the first year of Hongzhi (1488), Sheng Henan according to the inspection of the inspection of Zhang Ding as the right of the Metropolitan Institute Royal History Governor Zhili Baoding and other six government. Bing Guan, Zhen Su’s discipline, and acting strictly, it will make officials daunting, the military and civilians are Huai, the pass is strict, and the deputy commission is violated. Realizing that, as a department official, it is important to be honest and honest, but it is more important that more importantly, the officials of the Duchangyuan must have a different personality to better perform their duties. This unique personality quality is the “medium” that was originally emphasized. In October of the sixth year of Jiajing (1527), due to the strong recommendation of Zhan Shizong, because of Zhan Shi Huo Tao’s strong recommendation, the next step: “Hu Shining, the Ministry of Criminals, Hu Shining as the left capital of the capital.” (38) Huo Tao’s reason for Hu Shining was: ” (Hu) Shi Ning is loyal to pursue, Hong Shenya. “(39) This recommendation of Huo Tao, Yang Yiqing, then the old minister of the Cabinet, also gives full affirmation, and believes that” seeing Huo Tao played the people who used people to use people to use people. , To change Hu Shining to the capital of the capital, sincerely. The Division of the Wind will be like Shining Gang Ji, which is a competent job. “(40) In fact, Huo Tao as Zhang Ye and Gui in the” Grand Ceremony “in the” Grand Ceremony ” An important member of the Yifai faction had a deeper political contradiction between Yang Yiqing. Yang Yiqing was later cut off under Huo Tao’s continuous and violent attack. However, it is precious that the differences in political stance have not affected the height of their two in their employment positions. In fact, Hu Shining, who was highly recognized by the court minister Yang Yiqing, is indeed a suitable candidate for Zuo Duyu. “History of the Ming Dynasty” calls him: “Hongzhi Six years Jinshi. Sexual is straight, not afraid of strong royal”, “the style is very neat, the official is honest, the evil is evil”, “with the human language, no exit. According to the ancient and modern, the cave is a meeting. With Li Chengxun Shan, but the negotiations are meticulous … … I started with the ceremony with Zhang Yan and Guiyu, and the virtue, and wanted to help themselves. There are many things … … All the ministers are avoided. Obviously, he is indeed an official of integrity and self -discipline, acting independent political character, and non -party and private officials. He took office in the left capital, and took charge of the capital, that is, “more than ten constitutional sort”. (41) A very pragmatic measure for rectification of officials and governance has received certain results. During the reign of Ming Shizong, although indulging in fasting, the importance of the capital of the capital involved in bureaucratic supervision still maintained a sober understanding. Metropolitan courts are particularly important. ” (42) Ren Hu Shining as Zuo Duyu Shi is the reflection of this employment.

In short, the selection of the standard of monitoring royal history in the Ming Dynasty was basically the consensus of “mediocrity”.

Third, the evolution of the selection of qualifications of the royal history

In the Ming Dynasty, the selection of Yu Shi, if the character of “straight” is an essential condition that has always been adhered to, then “qualification” is the necessary condition for the selection of Yushi, but the condition of “qualification”, with the condition of “qualification”, with The changes in the political reality of the Ming Dynasty have changed. Generally speaking, qualifications often represent experience, and young represents vitality. The two seem to be contradictory, and in fact, they reflect the employment thinking of those who are politicians in different periods. For officials such as the Ming Dynasty Supervision Royal Shi, in addition to the consideration of the aforementioned personality factors, age is also an important selection standard.

In the eyes of the people of the Ming Dynasty, Duchangyuan is not only a hundred officials, and shoulder the heavy responsibility of monitoring civil and military officials. At the same time, it is necessary to avoid reducing the supervisory rights given by the central government into a tool for political struggle and affecting the normal operation of the central institution. Therefore, in addition to the uprightness of the Matsurge, the Duchai Institute also needs to find the balance point of the right to restrict each other in the daily performance of duties in order to implement the governance intention of the administrative person. Obviously, to do this, Yu Shi himself needs rich experience in politics, and has won the trust of the administrative person in order to be competent. Therefore, at the beginning of the Ming Dynasty, the choice of the duty of the imperial history emphasized the condition of “old success”. During the Hongwu period, the minister Zhang Zhizhong Shang Shu, believed that “the monitoring of the imperial history of the imperial court’s ears and the divisions of the Qing Dynasty should choose the elderly, 蹇谔, and public and honest, and live in their posts, know the officials of the officials, and stimulate turbidity. Yang Qing, with Georgia. “(43) This suggestion was recognized by Ming Taizu. Since then, the “Lao Sung” official has served as the selection criteria for monitoring Royal History, and has become a convention. During the Hongxi reign of Ming Ren, Zeng Xunshu said: “The officials of the imperial court court, but the old consciousness can be left.” (44)

However, in the actual selection of the monitoring Royal Shi, at least during the Ming Xuande period, it began to deviate from the principle of “Lao Sung”. The purpose of the supervisory purpose of the administrative person has a situation of “unable to win”. Ten years of Xuande (1435), Ming Yingzong was in the throne at the beginning, that is, the Capital Charity, saying: “The imperial court sets a constitution, so the sending of heavy ears, Yan Jigang’s appointment … After removing the constitution, there is a shortage of monitoring of the imperial history, so that the capital of the capital and official security promotion should be made to implement the implementation of the work. The person who gives you the same crime. “(45) required” each seeing the Royal History, it is advisable to try it. Those who are fair and honest, all of which are in their duties, they do not reach politics, do not know the text, greedy and shameless and shameless and shameless and shameless and shameless and shameless and shameless and shameless and shameless and shameless and shameless and shameless and shameless and shameless and shameless and shameless and shameless and shameless. Those who have committed the crime of stolen people have sent the Ministry of Officials to surrender … I can do my best to the public, and the history of the imperial officials, that is, the Ministry of Officials chose carefully, and it is not allowed to be taught since now. ” (46) During the political period of Ming Yingzong, he still emphasized the requirements of the choice of monitoring Royal History “Lao Cheng”. Ming Yingzong said: “The Division of the Chinese and Foreign Style Constitution Department, especially the eccentricity of the macro, and the appointment of the elderly. The official inspections of the courtyard are descending. “(47) In the early years of Ming Yingzong’s orthodox year, it also promulgated the decree, stipulating that” the first primary juniors were not allowed to be granted the Royal History. ” (48) But the young and vitality representing the vitality representing the qualifications were originally a pair of contradictions. The qualifications of “Lao Sung” too much will increase the threshold for the selection of Royal History in virtue, resulting in a sufficient number of competent royal history to fulfill the responsibility of its supervision. During the Xuande period of the early Ming Dynasty, the phenomenon of the lack of imperial officials began to appear. Shi Shi Capital Palace Royal Dudu Shi Gu Zuo played: “There are many people who monitor the history of the Royal History, visit the fourteen people such as Deng Ye, and the monitor Cheng Fu. Waiting for eleven people, listening to the official end of the election, etc. Twenty people and other twenty people are as long as they are, and they can serve as imperial history. . They all ordered in March of each Taoist and political, and Ercha’s words, testing whether it is a sage, and waiting for it. I will choose to let it. ‘”(49) In order to solve this problem, Ming Yingzong orthodox eight years (1443) The change of the lower part to the constitution, breaking the provisions of the new qi Jinshi that had been formulated before, and “the scholar recovered.” (50) It is worth noting that despite the relaxation of the selection of Royal Shi, the Ming court still could not choose to be a enough royal history. During the Chenghua period of Ming Xianzong, he “still follows the constitution, and there is no shortage of the history of the imperial history. Metropolis Institute Zuo Dudu Li Bin and other words:

There are many countless members of the court in this court. Please follow the world to patrol the royal history and set up the two divisions. , Jinshi, who is born in the past three years, is not limited to the difference or not, and gives them to the Ministry of Officials to verify it and distribute two Beijing Tao. Asked for half a year, as usual. It is not known, and the person who is not held, and the sin is sin. Meng Yu Yun Yun and the governor of the governor of the governor advance. The governor, the patrol, and the Zhejiang Division of the Nanzhili will give up. After that, the person who had been different in the past, and the difference between the differences and evils, and those who were avoiding suspicion and refused to be different. Among them are those who are not suitable for their appearance, those who have non -subjects, and those who have their original intentions after the difference. In the ancient times, Li Xian had no square, and could not be stubborn. He also said that he was rewarded by Xianxian, and he was shocked. If you do n’t accept bribes, do n’t do old, you do n’t listen to your entrustment, do n’t hold your prejudice, work in public, and naturally get people. In the case of the imperial history, when the emergency use, begging, the governor of the world, the patrol of the world, and the two divisions are the officials of the two divisions. For those who are imperial, although they are not different, they should be raised. If you do n’t know, you do n’t raise it, and those who do n’t raise them are still the same as the law. (52)

Ming Xianzong “Gena Zhi”. (53) The reasons for the lack of phenomenon in the Ming Dynasty Yushi are too important in the process of choice, but it is more important to be related to the reasons why the political system itself of the Ming Dynasty. As the official officials of the court, the Ming Dynasty had higher and higher requirements, such as clean and fair, loyalty, smart and capable, daring to appoint, age, etc., the so -called “flawlessly, can you just be the law.” (54) In order to select a satisfactory candidate, the principle of “carefully selection” (55) was implemented in the early Ming Dynasty. Under the political system of high autocracy and centralized power, the Ming Dynasty emperor lacked trust in bureaucrats and established a strict supervision system. Yushi was responsible for inspections and supervision. Punishment is also strict. The Ming court stipulated that “the Constitution of the Metropolitan Institute, but the patchwork was heard. Shi Guan’s competence and incompetence to smell. All the crimes of imperial history, plus three, etc., have the emphasis on stolenism. ” (56) During Shi Zai Ming Ren Zong Hongxi, Yu Shi Xie Yao wrote the wrong surname on the recommendation, since Chen reorganized. Ming Renzong immediately held a responsibility, saying that “the ancients were prudent. The shortcomings of Shi Qingshu ‘Ma’, fear and death. I do n’t know the surname, how can I know it? “(57) Ordered to derogate it to Zhixian County, Daban County, Jiaotong. During the period of Mingxianzong’s Chenghua, Yu Shi Li Zheng was “blamed in question” because he was inspecting the “scroll of the text” in the prison. ” This is the wrong way. You cannot participate in the refutation. (58) At the same time, in view of the selection of imperial history, too much values ​​the qualifications of Jinshi, which leads to “there are many unimaliated sages in the middle, but the qualifications are corresponding, they must be awarded, so they are not fully obtained.” 59) The phenomenon of the Ming court implemented a recommendation and accountability system. In the first year of the Ming Dynasty (1436) of the Ming Yingzong (1436), the Capital Increasing Institute and the Division of the Division were according to the prosecutors. The department is very heavy. In recent years, people who have not fulfilled, or the truth is unknown, and the operation is not established; or the law is not unprepared. Being good, even false power, greedy bribery, so that right and wrong, uncomfortable and unspecified, and the way of wind discipline has caused abandonment. Since the current monitoring of the imperial history, there are abuse and loss of duty, making Du Yushi and various ways of various ways and various ways Royal Shi Ren Ruki. According to the obstetric officer, there are abuse and non -calligraphy, and order the envoys and colleagues to retreat according to the obstetrics and colleagues. (60) In the first year of the year of Ming Xiaozong Hongzhi (1488), the minister Ma Wen was promoted to sparse, and once again requested that “each of the scholars and people who belong to them are more than six years in Zhixian County. “, (61)” If you are not true, the incident is crime. In this way, the imperial history can get the people, and the wind discipline is rising. ” (62) The implementation of the recommendation and accountability system has caused another layer of scruples in the recommendation of Royal History, which leads to less recommendation or even not recommended. In addition, although the power of the Ming Dynasty was heavier, the treatment was not high. According to the official Lu standard formulated by Hongwu 25th year (1392), “Zhengyin Yipin Month of 87 Month, from one product to Zhengsan three stones, from the three grades and twenty -six stones, the four grades of the twenty -four stones, from the four grades of the four stones, from the four grades, from the four stones, from the four grades of the four stones, from the four grades of the four stones. Twenty -one stones, Zheng Wupin and Sixteen Stones, from the five grades and fourteen stone, the six grades and ten stones, from the six grades and eight stones, the seven items to the fifth of the five buckets to the five stones … … Chenghua seven years The households have less banknote, but with a cloth estimation, we have two hundred dollars to be used as a banknote. It is only two or three texts for the time of the bill, and the one stone one stone is only worth 20 or 30 dollars. A piece of cloth is only two or three hundred dollars, and the folding rice twenty stones are only 145 yuan. (63) Ordinary thirteen monitoring royal history, its rank is just the seven grades, and the official is the seven stone and five liters. However, the responsibilities given by Ming Ting are relatively heavy. For ordinary officials, the position of imperial history is not the choice. Therefore, it is not difficult to understand that the phenomenon of the lack of imperial history in the Ming Dynasty.

In the early Ming Dynasty, the imperial examinations were implemented for a long time. The selection of officials focused on actual administrative experience. Therefore, “Lao Cheng” became the first choice. After the Ming and orthodox, with the continuous improvement of the imperial examination system, the number of bureaucrats who had a jinshore origin, so they began to focus on the junior scholars who were born in the “positive way”, and chose them as Royal History to become the norm. Nevertheless, in the end of the Ming Dynasty, the Ming Dynasty ruler never abandoned the selection standard of “old success”. In the case of being a jinshi, the use of Royal Shi still emphasized that the “old success” is prioritized. Administrative experience. During the Ming Chenghua period, the two Beijing supervisors of the Royal History were absent. Ming Xianzong said: “The imperial history of the imperial history, the pension of the pension, and the self -study of the people who are young, and there are few people who are constant black and white. Those who have served as three years are not limited to inside and outside. “(64) During the Ming Xiaosong, the Prince Shaobo Duchangyuan Zuo Du Yudu Yu Shi Gui begged to the Shi, and Ming Xiaozong said,” Qing Chief of Qing Dynasty, Duan Shen Lao Cheng, and Fang Long appointed, how can you quote the year and not allow it. ” (65) During the Jiajing period of the Ming Dynasty, the Duchauan Institute was required to make up for the lack of the historians. One by one. “(66)

Fourth, the impact of the evolution of supervision and evolution on the political direction of the Ming Dynasty

On the basis of the setting of the previous generation in the Ming Dynasty, after continuous reform and improvement, a relatively close monitoring system was established. In the central government, the capital was as the core institution. “Tao” (67) Thirteen monitoring of the Royal History “inspect Fang Yue, and when entering, it is a hundred affiliates. , Everything is dedicated, and the royal history must not be predicted. ” (68) The monitoring system that cooperates with each other in cooperation between the central and localities, the internal and unified belongings of the system, and mutual supervision of each other effectively expand the scope of supervision and further strengthen the authority of imperial power. However, it is not difficult to find that the results of the supervision of the Ming Dynasty were not difficult to find that the differences in front and after the Ming Dynasty were large, and the results of the early Ming Dynasty were significantly effective, which effectively rectified the governance. After the middle of the Ming Dynasty, the disadvantages of the monitoring system were overwhelmed. The imperial history of holding the power of supervision was continuously involved in the political struggle, and even became a tool for party struggle. The bureaucratic system of the Ming Dynasty gradually lost its ability to supervise and self -purification, and finally slipped towards the abyss of decaying decay. The supervisory institution with the Capital Insurance Institute is clearly determined as the “Eye Division” of the Emperor Son, which is specially determined to be the Emperor of the Emperor. Guang Tianzi’s smart virtue. In order to ensure that the supervision system can effectively exercise its powers, the Ming court’s requirements for the imperial history of the Division have high personal character cultivation, and repeatedly emphasized that “must be positive first to the law”, “imperial history is the discipline of the wind discipline”. Division, right, can be positive, compared to his officials, still should be self -respectful “,” then the length of the inner Taiwan, Gang Jiyou, must first hold a honest and fair, and his own historical affairs are ordered. Self -discipline, the night of the night, should be implemented in accordance with the government affairs, and the implementation of the “Division of the Divisions” and the “Constitution”. (70) At the same time, the Ming court also formulated a complete “constitution”, “Taiwan rules” and “treaty”, or compiled into a book, or written on the screen, called the “Screen Terms”, which is restricted by the royal history. For example, “Fengxian needs to understand the positive, not to be selfish”, “Fengxian must be held on the body, and the public is cautious” (71) and so on. Among them, the requirements of the “Treaty of the Metropolis” are:

1. Royal History is in the pension or not, if you are not interviewed with your heart, it will be distorted. In the future, the imperial history is in the court and outside. Private and love, reversing black and white, and self -recruitment; 1. The Treaty of the Law is the Code of the State, which is a constitutional minister. Except for the guilds such as appointment and promotion, their leisure dates must not drink and play chess. They may waste occupations and have bad winds. In the facts of the inquiry, you can only hold it if you are allowed to be allowed to be held. Don’t confuse the words and not to cut it, it is difficult to do it, to point out, and there is a definition of Taiwan. (72)

At the beginning of the Ming Dynasty, the ruler attached great importance to rectifying the governance, and the selection and supervision of Yu Shi were strict. Indeed, a lot of upright and daring to supervise the monitoring history, and played a good role in supervision. For example, Xie Min during the Ming Hongwu period, “Given supervision of the Royal History, with talents, and Jiangxi’s inspection. In Ren Jingshan to punish evil, many false borrowings, greedy ink and deterrent, changing their careers and goodness, claiming to be good. Bayucharian Right Dudu History, holding the wind discipline, Taichung Ran. ” (73) During the Xingren Xuan period, Gu Zuo was the Matsurgery. On the day, there must be a correction, and the minister Mo Bu shares. ” (74) “History of the Ming Dynasty” commented that “Gu Zuo is in charge of the state, and the wind is the clear.” (75) The reason why this can do is related to his high political ethics. He was innocent, and “History of the Ming Dynasty” called him “filial piety, innocent, strict sex.” He insisted on principles, did not pull help, and did not fear offending people. “Every time you tend to dynasty … Those who are over the border are folded. In the inside, they are alone, and they are alone in the small clip. He is indifferent to his desire, does not seek personal gain, and strictly enforces the law. It is because of his strong confidence that he can vigorously “punish the officials and be greedy and entered the public of the public”.

In the early Ming Dynasty, politicians knew that the supervisory officials were seriously performing their duties, which easily caused the hatred and revenge of other bureaucrats. Therefore, some protection systems were specifically designed. Correction, Taizheng must not retaliate private revenge “, (77) and set it as” ancestral system “. During the Ming Jingtai period, in the incident of Chen Xun, a minister in the survey of the survey office, Chen Xiang offended Chen Xun and Chen Xun was retaliated with his private revenge. The royal history Zhu Ying resisted and argued, saying that “if the book is the book, all those who are attacked by the Royal History will be frantic, and the more silent of the Royal History.” (78) After the trial of the French Division, Emperor Ming Jing finally obeyed Zhu Ying’s words and restored Wang Hao’s official.

However, under the feudal imperial authority system, the choice of monitoring the history of the royal history could not get rid of the human governance. The Ming Dynasty politicians established a supervision system, and it also contained the purpose of using the monitoring royal history to achieve mutual checks and balances in North Korea. If the politicians can be used to govern, pay attention to strengthening the supervision of the monitoring of the royal history, the selection of the royal history is proper, and the power of the monitoring can have a great effect on the bureaucratic system, thereby effectively rectifying the effect of official governance. Once the politicians are negligent in political affairs and indulge in comfort, they will definitely have a negative impact on the selection and supervision of monitoring the history, shake and weaken the authority of supervision, and will eventually damage the Ming Dynasty’s rule of the body.

After the Ming Jingtai period, the accumulation of the supervision system gradually became deeper, mainly manifested in: the “clause” and “treaty” of the supervisory royal history began to fail, similar to false. The rulers of the early Ming Dynasty were well versed in governing the country, attached great importance to the management of the officials of the Royal History, and formulated a strict “clause” and “treaty” to ensure that the power of supervision given by the court will not be abused. However, after the middle of the Ming Dynasty, these rules that restrained the imperial history were difficult to implement. “It has become constitutional since the ancestors. (79)

The phenomenon of illegal discipline in monitoring Royal History has increased. As the officials of Fengxianmen, the power of the royal hand holding supervision is a barrier to prevent the collapse of the government. Supervisor the illegal history, its influence and consequences are far more serious than ordinary officials. Therefore, in order to strengthen the supervision of supervision bureaucrats at the beginning of the Ming Dynasty, it is stipulated that the crime of all the imperial history must be added. Nevertheless, after the middle of the Ming Dynasty, the phenomenon of illegal discipline in the monitoring of the Royal History continued to increase. In the first year of Tianshun (1457), Ming Yingzong made a “Zhen Su Fengxianxian” to the right capital Geng Jiuchu and others, pointing out “Near Jingtai was in trouble, Gang Ji was dazzling. , Have more private door, or the emotion is in vain. Or let’s take bribes to the officials, those who talk about or falsely help the public, or have a bad reputation, or they are more treacherous than Zhou. Beauty and blessing are harmful to others, so that the officials are evil, and the national law does not work. “It is required to take measures to take measures, rectify, and disadvantages before the pain. If there is a violation of the law of the royal history, he retreats; It is required that “every time you encounter a matter of affairs, and the implementation of” The Division of the Divisions “and” The Constitution “will be implemented. . Unadvantage, in the history of the royal. ” (80) However, the phenomenon of monitoring Royal History’s illegal discipline has not been effectively curbed. During the Jiajing and Longqing period of the Ming Dynasty, the minister Gu Cunren pointed out that “the recent business trips have been on business trips, often wantonly, and do not follow the” Constitution “. (81)

The fighting between the royal history not only became increasingly fierce, but also used the supervision rights in their hands to continue to participate in the political struggle of the court. First of all, in July of the 12th year of Ming Yingzong (1447), “Catch Nanjing Right Capital of the Royal History Zhou Zhen and Thirteen Royal Shi Fan Lin and Yang Yong in jail. , Deeply. And the affairs of the hospital, set up a work to supervise the history of the royal history. As far as you are concerned, the sun is constantly, Lin, Yong and others cannot be able to do it. In the prison, he also dredged all the royal history, all arrested, and he had a heart palpitations and dysentery. Therefore, the history of the imperial history should be descended or 谪, and Lin, Yong Yong’s first proposal was severely crimes, and he would be sentenced to death in the prison. Lin had to die out of prison and died for a few days. ” (82) Later, Mingxianzong’s four years (1468), because of the differences in the assessment results of officials, Zhang Lun, the right servant of the Nanjing Official Department, and the Dudu Du Dudu Gaoming. During the assessment of Shi Zai, “Nanjing’s right servant Zhang Lang, and the Duchauan Institute, the right of the right, the right of the Royal History Gaoming. It has been played. Different officials are doubtful. Shi Shi Lang Ye Sheng and Mao Hong gave Mao Hong in Nanjing. Waiting for three people, the people’s material is a pity. Zuofu experienced Wu Xuan and other nineteen people to reprimand. Each official official did not say the eloquent, but the Yushi history Gao Minggang used himself. The constitutional ministers of the Fengfeng, tenderness, can’t enter the virtuousness, will not be retired, and willing to let it go with the Ming Dynasty. Gao Ming also misunderstand that he is wronged and not allowed. Zhang Lun couldn’t tell the public. More, it is it … … according to the sessions, the courtyard, the plan, it is true that there is no such thing. ” (83) At the beginning of Jiajing, because of the impeachment of the cabinet of the cabinet of the Royal History, Yang Ting and the matter, the Ministry of Military Ministry of the Ministry of Military, Peng Ze Shang Shu asked the officials of the official to privately disintegrate the four or more officials, and was continuously reported by the imperial history. Peng Ze’s proposal rose to the height of invading the imperial power in order to go quickly. Royal Shi Wangshan’s “Those who can not know that there are four in the analysis of Zezawa”; (84) Yu Shi Cao Jia said: “Today Shi Dao Luo Zhanhe, strict responsibility, prison for prison. Fu Zou, Junmengwen’s consolation and rewarding, when he was in the law, he was all prepared. He was a minister. Essence (85) In the incident, Li Xue once said that “what he saw and wanted to be disorderly, with the prestige of the minister to seize the handle of the emperor. In the event of a party, in the event of a party of evil and danger, he listened to the crowd, and the dark master was the end of the Taiwan. With the mouth of Taiwan, I do n’t know what to do with my Majesty. Zeyan picked the Taiwanese eunuch, and it is advisable to be a mature, and then the officials and other officials should be the official. ” (86)

In addition, after the middle of the Ming Dynasty, some monitoring of the royal eunuch’s authority and losing his independent political ethics, of course, it was impossible to play the role of the supervisory. During the period of Shi Zai Ming’s Zhengde, just because Duchara wrote the words “Liu Jin Chuan Feng” in the text of the review of the review, “Jin was furious and scolded. Under the kneeling step, Jin’s crime was rebuked, and he dared not look up at him. (87)

Under such circumstances, the supervisory role that monitoring Royal Shi can play is inevitable. At the same time, the rule of the Ming Dynasty became increasingly declining, and the country was dying.

The Ming court regarded Fengxian Yamen as the official “ears” of the court. After the middle of the Ming Dynasty, the phenomenon of the lack of Royal Shi was serious, the internal struggle was fierce, and frequently participated in the political struggle of the court. The sigh of the signs of the Ming court, the name of the Ming court’s supervision system was survived. In the case of “ears and eyes”, the rule of the Ming Dynasty was declining, and of course it was difficult to avoid.

The cause of this situation has a great relationship with the rulers of the Ming Dynasty.

In the selection of Yu Shi, Ming Yingzong broke the regulations of the new qi Jinshi who could not use the Royal History. Although it could supplement the new monitoring power, it also attached great importance to the “jinshi origin” and there were disadvantages. Lack of necessary political experience. The officials of the officials gave Cheng Wanli and waited: “Yushi, the officials of the imperial court, the officials of the court, the officials of the official, the newly entered the constitution, the begging of the official department selected in accordance with the” Constitution “. , Either internal and external officials, but the subject of the subject is full for three years, and the candidate is in the same one. Duoyong. “(88) Because of the difficulty of choosing a competent Royal History, it changed the practice of cautiously selected in the past when choosing. “Once a year, it is easy to enter, and there are no maniac people who are abusing in the meantime, confusing the theory”; (89) “Recently, the imperial history has been on a business trip. It is necessary to choose Lao Cheng’s heavy supplement, not to be taught. ” (90)

In the appointment of Yu Shi, the premise of effectively exercising the right to supervise is to gain the high trust of the imperial power. However, under the situation where the eunuchs’ authority and power of the eunuchs in the middle of the Ming Dynasty, the emperor intentionally or unintentionally favored the behavior of eunuchs and power ministers, and would severely defeat the prestige of the supervision system, resulting in the failure of supervision. For example, Yang Yan, who had been called “Zhenyu History” by Ming Yingzong, was arrested and prison in May (1457) in the first year of Tianshun (1457). There are also 13 Royal Shi Zhang Peng, Du Yu Shi Geng Jiuchou, Luo Qi and others who have been arrested. The cause is the illegal behavior of the 13th monitoring of Zhang Peng, Zhang Peng, and other chapters of the chapters of the power, and the eunuch Cao Jixiang. The inner official Zhang Yongzi, “Therefore, the party is concluded and the ministers. Dudu Shi Luoqi sarcastic for this, and he and the puppets … have fallen in charge and virtue to participate in politics. “The way to say is unreasonable”, (91) is undoubtedly a heavy blow to the supervision system. In addition, the arbitrarily attaches the enthusiasm of the monitoring of the Royal History. There is no doubt that monitoring is a job that is vulnerable and vulnerable to retaliation, so people who need to be “straight” are needed. There were also some system designs in the early Ming Dynasty to protect officials of Fengxian. However, after the middle of the Ming Dynasty, political struggle was fierce and the phenomenon of mutual complaints was common. Out of the purpose of checking and balance of the power of the royal history, politicians are allowed to be sued by the supervisors. Under such circumstances, the officials of Yu Shi are also facing the risk of the defendant’s arrest at any time. Out of self -protection, it is inevitable that when the monitoring is in the end of the supervision, the supervision effect is greatly reduced. During Ming Hongzhi, the minister Ma Wensheng pointed out that the officials who were charged by Yushi were disciplined. He and the prisoners were dealt with first with each other. There was no dryness and humiliation. It was a little defective, caused more than a loss, lost money, and frustrated the constitution of the constitution. The insured is in office, sitting at the stolen officer, dare not ask questions, so that the law is abolished, corruption, and the small people must not be monitored. ” (92)

Of course, the Ming Dynasty was declining from Qiangsheng to decline. But the gradual collapse of the supervision system is one of the most important reasons. After investigating the political development trend of the Ming Dynasty in the middle of the Ming Dynasty, it is not difficult to see that such development rules: corruption of officials, making the government’s politics more dark, social contradictions continued to intensify, and the foundation of the Ming Dynasty rule was shaken. Some efficiency. As the Ming people said, “This position is not raised today, so the minister has no fear, and the dynasty is greedy for ink. If the people are endless and stolen?”

Note:

① Regarding the research of the Ming Dynasty in the Ming Dynasty, there are mainly Wang Tian: “Research on the National Institution of the Ming Dynasty”, Peking University Press 1992 edition; Guan Wenfa, Yan Guangwen: “Research on the Political System of the Ming Dynasty”, China Social Science Press 1995 edition; Du Xiaotian: “Examination of the Metropolitan Institute of the Ming Dynasty”, Journal of Henan Normal University, Issue 3 of 2011; Ding Yang: “Analysis of the Institute of Inspection of the Ming Dynasty”, master’s degree paper, East China University of Political Science and Law, 2010; Wu Yanhong: ” Control of the Metropolitan Institute and the official legal knowledge of the Ming Dynasty “, Journal of Sichuan University, No. 2, 2018, and so on.

② (Ming) Ye Ziqi: “Herbal” Volume three “Miscellaneous Articles”, Zhonghua Book Company, 1959 edition, p. 61.

③ (Ming) Ye Ziqi: “Herbal” Volume three “Miscellaneous Articles”, pp. 61-62.

④ “History of Ming Dynasty” Volume 73 “Officer II · Metropolis Institute”, Zhonghua Book Company 1974 edition, p. 1771.

⑤ (Ming) Chen Jian: Volume 4 of “Emperor Ming Tong Ji Law Biography”, “Continued Four Treasury Books”, Book 357 of the Ministry of History, Shanghai Ancient Books Publishing House, 1996, p. 74.

⑥ (Qing) Gu Yingtai: “The End of the Ming History” Volume 1 and three “Hu Lan’s Prison”, Zhonghua Book Company, 1977, p. 180.

⑦ (Ming) Chen Jiude: “Economic Records of the Emperor Ming Ming” Volume 1 “Founding of the Revolutionary Books”, “Four Library Ban Books Book Series”, History No. 9, Beijing Press, 1997, 18th, 18th, 18th, 18th Under the page.

⑧ (Ming) Chen Zilong and other selection: “The Editorial of the Ming Dynasty” Volume 334 “Wang Yanzhou Wenji · Metropolis Institute Royal History Table Prelude”, the 1962 edition of the Chinese Book Company, pp. 3575.

“History of Ming Dynasty” Volume 73 “Officer II · Metropolis Institute”, p. 1772. In the name of the Metropolitan Institute, the Qing Dynasty Liang Zhangxuan believed that it was not the first of the Ming Taizu, and it originally originated from the Tang Dynasty Royal Shitai. His “Title Record” Volume 1 and Fourth “Metropolitan Institute” stated: “The name of the Metropolitan Institute, the cover began. The words of the “capital” of the Ming Dynasty, Gahe Du Yushi, and the ears of the monitoring of the royal history. ” Society 2003, p. 256.

《(Qing) Chen He: “Ming Ji” Volume 4 “Taizu Four”, “Four Equipment” books, History 43rd, Zhonghua Book Company 1936 edition, p. 64 and bottom.

(11) (Qing) 《: “Continuing Code” Volume 28 “Officer · Yu Shitai”, Zhejiang Ancient Books Publishing House, 1988 edition, p. 1293.

(12) (Ming) Cheng Minzheng: “The Jun Dun Ji” Volume 2 “Gifts to the Sequence of the Dragons of the Division”, Ming Zhengde’s two -year engraving, p. 13.

(13) Volume 32, Volumes of Ming Taizu, June of Hongwu in June of the 13th year, 1983 edition of the Institute of History and Language of the “Chinese Academy of Sciences”, p. 2096.

(14) (Ming) Chen Zilong and other selection: “The Editorial of the Ming Dynasty” Volume 334 “Wang Yanzhou Wenji · Metropolis Institute Royal History Table Institute”, pp. 3575.

(15) (Ming) Xu Xueju: “National Dictionary” Volume 53 “Ministry of Officials · Metropolitan Institute”, Book Literature Publishing House, 1996, p. 925.

(16) “History of Ming Dynasty” Volume 7 “Officer II · Metropolis Institute”, pp. 1771-1772.

(17) (Ming) Zheng Xiao: “I learned the editor of the famous minister” Volume 2 “The Gong of the Royal History”, “Beijing Library Ancient Books Jane Book Series”, Book 1295, 1995, p. 280 Down.

(18) “Ming Taizu Records” Volume 34, Hongwu’s August in the first year of the first year, p. 616.

(19) Volume 60 in “The Record of the Ming Taizu”, the fourth year of Hongwu’s spring, p. 1176.

(20) Volume 48 in the “Records of the Ming Taizu”, the Sino -Japanese War of the Spring Month of Hongwu, p. 949.

(21) “Ming Taizu Records” Volume 34, Hongwu in August of the first year of Hongwu, p. 611.

(22) “History of Ming Dynasty” Volume 128 “Liu Ji Zhuan”, p. 3777.

(23) “History of Ming Dynasty” Volume 128 “Zhang Yi Chuan”, p. 3791.

(24) “History of Ming Dynasty” Volume 126 “Tang He Chuan”, p. 3752.

(25) “Ming Taizu Records” Volume 78, Hongwu Sixth Spring Spring Bingchen Strip, pp. 1427.

(26) “Ming Taizu Records” Volume 168, Hongwu 17th November Ding Ugly, p. 2569.

(27) “History of Ming Dynasty” Volume 7 “Officer II · Metropolis Institute”, p. 1768.

(28) (Qing) Sun Chengze: “Chunming Meng Yu Lu (below)” Vol.

(29) (Qing) Sun Chengze: “Chunming Meng Yu Lu (below)” Volume 48 “Metropolitan Institute”, p. 269.

(30) (Qing) 《(: “Qin Ding Continuation Documents” Volume 54 “Official Examination · Yu Shitai”, Wenyuan Pavilion “Siku Quanshu”, Shanghai Ancient Books Publishing House, 1987, Volume 627 No. 627 No. 627 No. 627 No. 627 No. 627 No. 627 No. 627 No. 627 No. 627 Page 497.

(31) (Qing) Long Wenbin: “Minghui Yao” Volume 33 “Officer Five Metropolitan Institute”, Zhonghua Book Company, 1998 edition, p. 559.

(32) (Ming) Written by Huang Yu, Wei Lianke’s school: “Shuanghuai Suihuai” Volume 5 “The Grand Officer to Shangshu”, the 1999 edition of the Chinese Book Company, p. 90.

(33) (Qing) Sun Chengze: “Tianfu Guang Ji” Volume 2 “Metropolitan Institute”, Beijing Ancient Books Publishing House, 1984, p. 306.

(34) (Qing) Sun Chengze: “Tianfu Guang Ji” Volume 23 “Metropolis Institute”, pp. 306-307.

(35) (Ming) Shi Pei: “Nanjing Metropolis Institute” Volume 1 “Emperor Lun”, “Siku Quanshu Story Books Book Book”, Volume 73, Qilu Shu Society, 2001, p. 50.

(36) Volume 7 of Mingxianzong Records, Tianshun Eight Years Autumn and July July, pp. 168-169.

(37) Volume 10 of the Ming Xiaozong Records, the first month of Hongzhi, the first month of the first month, p. 216.

(38) (Qing) Xia Yan: “Ming Tong Jian” Volume 53 “Emperor Shizong”, Zhonghua Book Company, 1959 edition, p. 2004.

(39) Volume Bayi of the Ming Shizong, October of the sixth year of Jiajing, p. 1793.

(40) (Ming) Yang Yiqing: “Yang Yiqing Collection · Pavilion Records” Volume 3 “Playing Right · Use Personal Patient”, Zhonghua Book Company, 2001, p. 886.

(41) “History of Ming Dynasty” Volume 199 “Biography of Hu Shining”, pp. 5258, 5262-5263, 5261.

(42) (Qing) Sun Chengze: “Chunming Meng Yu Lu (Part 1)” Volume 2 4 “Cabinet”, p. 260.

(43) (Ming) Huang Guangsheng: “Zhao Dai Dian” Volume 8 “Emperor Taizu Gao”, Shanghai Ancient Books Publishing House, 2008, p. 199.

(44) (Ming) Huang Guangsheng: “Zhao Dian Dian” Volume 14 “Emperor Renzong Zhao”, p. 377.

(45) (Ming) Yu Jideng: “Exclusive Journey” Volume 10, Zhonghua Book Company, 1997, p. 186.

(46) (Qing) Sun Chengze: “Tianfu Guang Ji” Volume 23 “Metropolis Institute”, p. 307.

(47) (Ming) Kong Zhenyun: Volume III of “Emperor Mingming System”, “Continued Four Treasury Books”, Book 458 of the Ministry of History, under page 89.

(48) (Qing) Long Wenbin: “Minghui Yao” Volume 33 “Officials Five · Metropolis Institute”, p. 562.

(49) (Ming) Xue Yingqi: “Charter Records” Volume 22, Xuande in the three years of Xuande, Gui Wei, “Continued Four Books and Quanshu”, History, 352, p. 215.

(50) (Ming) Sun Xun: “Emperor Ming Shu Shu” Volume 67 “Feng Ji · Zhen Su Feng Ji Yi Yi Zhi Dao Shu”, Taiwan Student Book Company, 1986, pp. 5065.

(51) (Ming) Sun Xun: “Emperor Ming Shu Shu” Volume 67 “Feng Ji · Zhen Su Feng Ji Yi Yi Zhi Dao Shu”, pp. 5065.

(52) “Mingxianzong Records” Volume 97, Chenghua seven years of winter October, Ren Ren, pp. 1839-1840.

(53) “Mingxianzong Records” Volume 97, Chenghua seven years of winter October, Ren Ren, p. 1840.

(54) (Ming) Shen Shixing: “Minghui Dian” Volume 2 10 “Metropolitan Institute 2 · Patrol Matters”, Business Press, 1936, p. 4196.

(55) (Ming) Shi Pei: Volume 4 of “Nanjing Metropolitan Incuna”, “Officer II”, “Siku Quanshu Starting Books Books” Book 73, p. 114.

(56) “History of Ming Dynasty” Volume 7 “Officer II · Metropolis Institute”, p. 1769.

(57) (Ming) Yu Jideng: “Exclusive Journey” Volume 9, p. 152.

(58) “Mingxianzong Records” Volume 280, the autumn of the 22nd year of Chenghua, Gui Hai, p. 4726.

(59) (Ming) Sun Xun: “Emperor Ming Shu Shu” Volume 67 “Feng Ji · Zhen Su Feng Ji Yi Yi Zhi Dao Shu”, pp. 5065.

(60) (Ming) Huang Guangsheng: “Zhao Dai Dian” Volume 1 Five “Emperor Ying Zongrui”, p. 417.

(61) (Ming) Sun Xun: “Emperor Ming Shu Shu” Volume 67 “Feng Ji · Zhen Su Feng Ji Yi Yi Zhi Dao Shu”, pp. 5065.

(62) (Ming) Sun Xun: “Emperor Ming Shu Shu” Volume 67 “Feng Ji · Zhen Su Feng Ji Yi Yi Zhi Dao Shu”, p. 5066.

(63) (Qing) Zhao Yi, Wang Shumin School Certificate: “Two Shi Zha Notes School Certificate” Volume 32 “The Satalty of Ming Guan”, Zhonghua Book Company 1984 edition, p. 750.

(64) “Mingxianzong Records” Volume 82, Sixth year of Chenghua, Sixian Xinhai, p. 1596.

(65) “The Record of Ming Xiaozong” Volume 157, the Gengyin strip of December of the twelfth year of Hongzhi, p. 2816.

(66) (Ming) Wu Ruiden: “Records of the Two Dynasties” Volume 8, Jiayin strips in August of the 17th year of Jiajing, 1990 edition of Zhonghua Book Company, p. 17.

(67) (Ming) Xu Shiqi: “Guan Juezhi” Volume 2 “Metropolitan Institute”, “Book of Book Integration”, Chinese Book Company, 1985, p. 15.

(68) (Ming) Zhang Xuan: “Xiyuan Wenxuan Records” Volume 93 “Taiwan Province”, “Continued Four Treasury Books”, Volume 1170 of the Ministry, p. 169.

(69) (Ming) Shen Shixing: “Minghui Dian” Volume 2 10 “Metropolitan Institute 2 · Patrol Matters”, p. 4196.

(70) (Ming) Shi Pei: “Nanjing Metropolis Institute” Volume 3 or Five “Public Movement”, “Siku Quanshu Starting Books Books” Book 74, p. 273, p. 274.

(71) (Ming) Shen Shixing: “Minghui Dian” Volume 2 10 “Metropolitan Institute 2 · Patrol Matters”, p. 4196.

(72) (Ming) Shi Pei: “Nanjing Metropolis Institute” Volume 3 or Five “Public Movement”, “Siku Quanshu Starting Books Books” Book 74, p. 275.

(73) (Ming) Shi Pei: “Nanjing Metropolis Institute” Volume 37 “Character One”, “Siku Quanshu Starting Book Book Replenishment” Book 74, p. 367.

(74) (Qing) Sun Chengze: “Chunming Meng Yu Lu (below)” Volume 48 “Metropolitan Institute”, p. 273.

(75) “History of Ming Dynasty” Volume 158 “Gu Zuo Biography”, p. 4326.

(76) “History of Ming Dynasty” Volume 158 “Gu Zuo Biography”, pp. 4312, 4326.

(77) (Ming) Chen Jianji, Shen Guoyuan ordered: “Emperor Ming Congzan” Volume 29, August of the Twelve years of Jiajing, “Continued Four Treasury Books”, History, 355 superior.

(78) “History of Ming Dynasty” Volume 178 “Zhu Ying Chuan”, pp. 4740.

(79) (Ming) Shi Pei: “Nanjing Metropolis Institute” Volume 3 or Five “Public Movement”, “Siku Quanshu Starting Book Book Replenishment” Book 74, p. 274.

(80) (Ming) Anonymous: “Emperor Mingming Order” Volume 1 and three “Emperor Yingzong Rui”, “Continued Four Treasury Books”, History 457, p. 284. (Ming) Xu Xueju: The “National Dictionary” Volume May 4th “The Ministry of Officials · The Royal History” also contains “in recent years, there are more light and wanton people for the royal history, not comply with the constitutional outline, and acting. For example, Royal Shi Li Fan, Yang Yan patrolled Xuanfu, Liaodong, good at being prestige, bluffing, the military and health of the military and guards, all ordered to play hands, privately used the horse steps of the army, and went away to welcome them. , Add Chu Chu, like this, which is not illegal, why is it right? “(Under p. 950)

(81) (Ming) Jia Sanjin’s series: “Emperor Ming and Ming Two Dynasties Copy” Volume 9 “Current Political Category · Chen Yuyi with Guangtian En”, “Continued Four Treasury Books”, History 465, Book of 465, 308 308 Under the page.

(82) (Ming) Lei Li: “Emperor Ming Da Political Division” Volume 1, July of the 12th year of orthodox twelve years, “Continued Four Treasury Books”, History 353, Page 744.

(83) (Ming) Shen Defu: “Wanli Ye Edited” Volume 1 and Two “The Ministry of Officials and the Department of Family Planning”, the China Book Company 1997 edition, p. 310.

(84) (Ming) Deng Yuanxi: “Emperor’s Book” Volume 10 “Emperor Sejong Su”, “Continued Four Treasury Books”, History 315, Page 626.

(85) (Ming) Deng Yuanxi: “Emperor’s Book” Volume 10 “Emperor Sejong Su”, p. 626.

(86) (Ming) Deng Yuanxi: “Emperor’s Book” Volume 10 “Emperor Sejong Susu Emperor”, p. 627.

(87) (Ming) Chen Hongmo: “Following Century News” Volume 1, Zhonghua Book Company 1997 edition, p. 75.

(88) “Mingxianzong Records” Volume 90, Chenghua seven years of summer and April April, p. 1749.

(89) (Ming) Shen consistent: “The Grass” Volume 5 “Reading the Selection of the Dao Dao Tao”, “Continued Four Books and Full Books”, the Ministry of History 479, p. 269.

(90) (Ming) Jia Sanjin’s series: “Emperor and Ming Two Dynasties Copy” Volume 9 “Current Political Category · Chen Yuyi with Guangtian En”, “Continued Four Treasury Books”, History 465 Volume, 308 308 Under the page.

(91) (Ming) Chen Jianji, Shen Guoyuan ordered: Volume 2020 of “Emperor Ming Ming”, May Article 336 of Tianshun.

(92) (Ming) Ma Wensheng: “Title Zhen Sudu Feng Discipline”, (Ming) Chen Jiude’s series: “Economic Records of the Emperor Ming Ming” Volume 4 “Guide”, “Four Library Ban Destroyed Books”, the Ministry of History Volume 9, p. 54.

(93) (Qing) Sun Chengze: “Tianfu Guang Ji” Volume 23 “Metropolis Institute”, p. 307.

耳目之坏:从御史选用制度的演化看明代政治走向

Source: “History Collection”, No. 3, 2020 Author: Liu Xiangxue

Welcome to follow China Social Sciences WeChat public account CSSN_CN to get more academic information.