——The contemporary inheritance of classical poetry
Speaker: Zhang Jingyan Place: Zhejiang · Tongjiang Humanities Lecture Hall Speech Time: January 202
Professor Zhang Jingnan University, Deputy Director of the Institute of Classical Classical Culture of Nankai University, director of the Chinese Poetry Society, member of the academic committee of Chinese ideology and term communication engineering, head of the National Excellent Online Course, and won the Outstanding Teacher Award of Baosteel of the Ministry of Education. Research on related fields such as Ciology, Chinese Poetry, Traditional Recitation, etc.
“Red Furnace Flying Snow” is the image that often appears in classical poetry. Although it is fleeting, after all, it brings a coolness to the world, and the Chinese classical poetry is condensed in the unique ideas, aspirations, atmosphere, and charm of Chinese culture. The blood of our nation, I think it can also become a finger -bright lamp in more people’s lives.
Why do we read ancient poems today?
What is “Poetry”? Jin Shengtan said very well: “Poetry is not a foreign body, but everyone’s heart is not found in the hearts of everyone, and they must say a word of words.” The ancient Chinese poetry, with their experiences and life experiences, integrated their ideals, incorporated their ideals, and their ideals. I wrote it; they wrote out their inner movement, “Although their people have no, they have a lot of love.” After thousands of years later, when we read these works again, we can still realize the same movement. This is the life of Chinese classical poetry. Wang Fu’s “Solution” said, “The saint uses poetry to clear its turbid heart, shocks its twilight, and accepts the sages of the heroes and later.” Poetry plays a role in purifying human souls (clearing its turbid heart), and the role of people’s spirit, motivating, and sublimation, making people get rid of faint and insignificant. A vigorous person, thus rising to the realm of heroes and sages.
In recent years, CCTV’s “Chinese Poetry Conference” and “Classic Yong Zhuan” and other programs have been loved by the audience, indicating that Chinese classical poetry still has vivid vitality at the moment. Today, we are still reading poems that have been more than a thousand years. In order to be able to write, to engrave the sword, but more importantly, we need to appreciate that poem, colliding with the life emotions of the ancient sages, and then enhance ourselves The practice of cultivation is the meaning of Chinese classical poetry.
Southern Song Xia Gui “Xuentang Guest Map” information picture
“Xunzi · Persuasion” said: “The learning of villains is also in the ears, and it is out of mouth; between the ears, there are four inches of ears, which is enough to be beautiful.” In other words, classical classics Poetry, we just listen from the ears and will carry it with our mouths, and will not have collisions about our hearts, no touch of our emotions, no effect on our thoughts, and no effect on our current cultivation. It’s really regrettable that a person is as empty -handed as a treasure. As the ancients said, “One language cannot be practiced, and thousands of rolls are empty.”
Wang Anshi in the Song Dynasty had such a small poem “Titles He’s House Pavilion”:
The lotus leaves are rolled, and the durian flowers are blooming. But there is a reward, and the years are promoted.
This poem is Wang Anshi in his later years. He died in a friend’s house surnamed in Jiangning two years before his death. Architecture, but also the common flowers and trees around everyone. “Lotus leaf rolls”, the lotus leaves are not opened all at once, not neatly growing into a “housing cover”, but to relax slowly and then relax. Lotus leaves have the rules of growing their own growth. Essence “The second time”, “the second”, is orderly, “there is no sooner or later, no need to marry the spring breeze”, not all the flowers are blooming in spring, let alone bloom in early spring. Pomegranate flowers are a kind of flower that blooms late in spring. As soon as the pomegranate flower blooms, it indicates that spring is over and early summer is coming, so the pomegranate flower also has the rhythm of its own bloom. There is a sharp contrast between the red and green of this flower, and there is a staggered level between a blooming branch and a duckweed water. The first two sentences of this poem use double -vocal words (“tactical”), stacking words (“second”) highlight the rhythm and laws of all things in all things. “Why does Mei Xianju compare? It’s like life is sometimes different.” In fact, everyone, just like flowers and trees, also have their own flowering period, and have their own blooming time and the rhythm of growth. “But make your heart a reward”, but as long as you find the goal that you are really interested, you will find the direction you are willing to bet. “Ren Qun Ren” will no longer feel that time is rushed, will no longer lament the death of the years, and will no longer feel that “the years are not living, the season is like flowing”. So the most important thing in our lives is whether we have found the goals and directions that make ourselves “reward”.
Here I may wish to share with you some of my experience as a college teacher. After the college entrance examination is over each year, colleges and universities will carry out enrollment consultation. There were many parents who came to consult with the enrollment of Nankai University at the consultation meeting. I have also had some contacts with these parents at the recruitment site. Among them, some parents will ask: “How much do our children have tested, which major is the most suitable major?” Parents talked first: “Our parents help their children to fill in their volunteers, not to buy vegetables in the vegetable market. In their pockets, I ask how to sell this pile of radish? . ” How do I sell this bundle of cabbage? ” 9 yuan 9? Then I have almost 10 yuan. “We need to ask your children first, what do you like the most at this moment? This is the most fundamental and most important. When filling in the college entrance examination volunteer selection, we need to respect the talents and interests of children. Some students’ parents even say, “Our children have taken such a high score, and have lost your literature and history and philosophy? Relatives and friends say that the business and business discipline will only be beautiful in the future.” Good grades, we should be a parent to complete the task. The choice of children’s future road should follow the child’s heart, not the face of the parent. Because his current choice may determine his career path of his life, if it is not him, it is not him Isn’t it the price of a lifetime that really loves? “The duty of our parents and teachers is to help children find his” heart -reward “goal and direction of life as soon as possible.
I personally appreciate the last few words that Wen Tianxiang said in “Zheng Qi Song”: “The philosopher is far away, the sentence is in the past. Although you and I have a certain time and space distance, their wisdom and character can still light up.
Du Fu in the Qing Dynasty “The Biography of the Late Smile Tang” information picture
Do we understand ancient poems?
Here is a song “Deng Qi Tower” by the Tang Dynasty poet Wang Zhizheng:
During the day, the Yellow River flows into the sea. For thousands of miles, go to the next level.
“Between the day and the mountains, the Yellow River is flowing into the sea.” The opening of the beginning is the right name, which is extremely neat, deep and powerful, highlighting the magnificent and magnificent of the scenery. The colors of yellow and white are contrasting with each other, and the nostalgia of “Yi” and the decisions of “entering” are compared. The west is the sinking of the sun, and the east is the flow of the big river. This kind of lift forms a powerful tension. “Between the day to the mountains” is a person westward, from the sky to the distance; This is the kind of loneliness of a person’s look at the west to east, can’t find a partner, or even when he can’t meet a opponent. What to do in the face of loneliness in life? You can only rely on continuously improve your cultivation. “For thousands of miles, go to the next level.” We must continue to improve the realm of your spirit to fight against the loneliness of this world.
In fact, the sunset and the rivers of the sunset and the rivers are two scenes that often appear in our classical poems. “The West Landscape, the East Injects Chuan Bo” (Tang · Yu Wuling’s “Feelings”), “Red Day sinks west, Bai Lang Chang East” [Song Xinji “Shengcuzi” 〕 Wait, for the ancients, these two scenes are often together, what does it mean? You can still go back to the original poem, “Between the day to the mountains”, “white” is bright and bright. This bright day is going to fall slowly at the mountain on the west. Human beings cannot stop and resist the impermanence. From ancient times to the present, ancient and modern China and foreign countries, there are no heroes or even the characters in myths and legends to make the sun never fall. What does the “Yellow River enter the sea flow” symbolize? The five generations of Li Yu said, “It is a long -hating and hate water and long east” (“Meeting Huan”), and it is also an impermanence that humans have helplessness and cannot be left and right. Ancient Greek philosopher Helkley said, “People cannot step into the same river twice. “In the face of the impermanence of life, what should we do? For Wang Zhizheng, the answer in the poem is “want to be poor for thousands of miles, and go to the next level.” Through the improvement of your own spiritual level, you can face the impermanence of the unchanged, sick, sick, and sudden natural disasters and human disasters.
The latter famous sentence “For thousands of miles, go to the next level”, uses flowing water pairs, no traces of carving, showing the broadness and vastness of the universe of heaven and earth. The last word “building”. Even though you and I have boarded the Tuokou Tower, you have reached a certain level and platform, and you have appreciated the beautiful scenes such as “day by day, the Yellow River entering the sea”, but we still cannot stop because There are better scenery waiting for us. We still need to work hard and forge ahead, so that we can see far, stand tall, look farther, life can reach a higher level, and the significance of life can further highlight the meaning of life to further highlight Essence “For thousands of miles, go to the next level,” reveal the deeper connotation to the readers with a broader space and a wider view, and then push the poem to a higher state. It is quite close to the poem of the Song Dynasty poet Zeng Gongliang in the poem “Solding Ganlu Temple Monk”: “It depends on the silver mountains to shoot the sky and open the window into the river.” If you want to see a more spectacular picture, you will It should have the courage and mind of “opening the window into the big river”. Only by establishing Gao Yuan’s goals can a more meaningful life.
Another example is Du Fu’s “Four Sentences”, which is also a well -known masterpiece:
Two yellow crickets are lingering and green willow, and a line of egrets on the sky. The window contains Xiling Qianqiu Snow, and the door is surrounded by Wuwanli boat.
The whole poem is a scene, “two yellow crickets” are points; “one line of egret” is a line, “window contains” is noodles, and “doorbo” is the body, as if outlines four pictures that are relatively independent and can be integrated with each other. In fact, the use of the game, between the two sentences between the upper and lower parties, and each of the two sentences of each couplet. In the first sentence, Huang Yingming in front of the cottage was between Cuiliu, and it was a close -up; the second sentence writing egret flying into the sky is a vision. “Two yellow crickets and beautiful willows”, the pair of birds in the bird shows a lively and lively picture. “Green” or “Bi” without similar meaning? Because “Cui” feels louder in the sound, is more fresh in terms of color, and is more precious in terms of affection. “One line of egrets on the blue sky” wrote egrets with flying above the blue sky, and the color of “white” and “green” also showed a beautiful scenery. The writing of the first two sentences of this poem is clean and noble. The sight is from near, far, and the bottom up. It is a set of views that are getting higher and higher, and it also indicates that each of us has a mature process.
The first two sentences in this poem, the last two sentences appeared because of the “door” and “window”. Both “doors” and “windows” are the images that lead the readers from the inner small space to the external large space. When the doors and windows are closed, the outside world cannot be found. Only by opening the window, opening the door, and communicating with the outside world can we appreciate the high -profile scenes and find the goal of Gao Yuan. “Window contains Xiling Qianqiu Snow” overlooks the window, “Ridge” symbolizes Gao Yuan, “Snow” represents purity, that is, we should open our hearts, push the window, and find a high, far -reaching, far -reaching, far away for ourselves Target and direction. The “Gate Plug -of -Wanli Boat” is a close scene to write the ship in front of the door. But this mooring is the ship that is going to Soochow, and the quietness is contained in the static. In other words, after establishing goals, we should also do things down to the earth and enhance our talents and ability. “Boat” is a loaded transportation, which means the load that is moving forward. “Qianqiu Xue” has a long time, “Wanli Ship” has a wide range of words, and poets in the cottage, thinking about thousands of years and seeing thousands of miles, how wide this is! The “Qianqiu Xue” goal of the goal is high, and the words and deeds of “Wanli Ship” are powerful. We need higher goals, and we also need pragmatic talents and long -term responsibility.
The wisdom of life contained in classic poetry
Below we can see a poem “Poetry” Du Fu’s poem “Binding Chicken”:
The little slave tied the chickens to sell to the city, and the chickens were rushed. I do n’t know that the chicken is cooked. The worm chickens are so thick, and I scold the slave to explain it. When the chickens are lost, it is noticeable to Yishan Pavilion in Hanjiang.
Everyone who reads this poem will understand the same way. There are neither a remote word nor the hardships. It seems to be understood as soon as he reads: one day in the poet’s home, the chickens fly and dog jump, noisy, why? It turned out that the servant at home was catching chickens in the yard. Of course, the chickens are unwilling to capture, so they run and make trouble. The poet asked, why did the chicken catch the chicken at this time? The servant said, “My family hates chickens and ants.” The chicken always ran around in the yard, eating the little worm and small ants in the yard, so he had to catch it and sell it. Du Fu said, “I don’t know that the chicken is cooked”, but if we catch the chicken to sell it to the market, don’t it also become a Chinese meal for others? “Why are the pheasant be thick”, should we have mercy of chickens, or think about insects and ants? “I scold the slave to explain it,” I told the servant to put the chicken first. In fact, Du Fu wrote about the infection of daily chores for our hearts, a kind of trouble in the world of vulgar life. “Chicken insects are lost.” If you care about it, the problem of chickens and losses will always exist. As long as there is a dispute between interests, there must be troubles, including our daily families and units, there must be all contradictions and troubles. Do you think about this? At home, brothers and sisters will compare each other because of the many people who take care of the elderly, and they will also have disputes due to the thickness of the heritage distribution. In the unit, there will be competition such as advanced, titled titles, and wages. … In our lives, we will face the troubles of all kinds of chickens and insects. If it cares about it, what does it do all the time? This kind of confusion, entanglement, and troubles, the great poets will inevitably encounter, Du Fu himself has experienced it, but he has the wisdom of escaping trouble.
Okay, a little red furnace snow, scattered as a night light on earth
The success of this “Binding Chicken” is that the end of the sentence is through the image to provide everyone with a wisdom door key: “Note Hanjiang Yishan Pavilion”, “Hanjiang” is far away, “Shange” is high, high, “Hanjiang Yishan Pavilion” is also a picture that often appears in painting works. “Note that Hanjiang Yishan Pavilion” is to divert your eyes, look at the large and high scenery in the distance, bet your energy and time on a wider and high goal and direction, and turn your talents and life In the case of investing more meaningful and valuable, this is a kind of wisdom that fights the troubles of constant trivial matters. It was also understood this sentence as Du Fu’s “notice the Hanjiang and leaning on the mountain pavilion alone”, which also emphasized the significance of ascending Wangyuan to get rid of the world disputes. Just as the Qing Dynasty Lin Zexu said, “Wang Yuan can know the wind and waves, and the sky is the same as the sea waves.” Whether it is facing troubles or experiencing storms, standing high, looking far, and establishing a high goal of life is indeed a kind of goal. Wisdom of life.
Here we will give another example. Mr. Yang Zhenning talked in his speech that he had happened during his postdoctoral research at the Princeton Higher Research Institute. In 1948, Mr. Yang Zhenning was a teaching assistant at the University of Chicago. He paid the registration fee with four other graduate students ($ 17) and participated in a fixing competition published in the US newspaper. Finally, the winner’s prize was 50,000 US dollars. A month later, the organizer of the contest was replied: You do well, it is the first, but there are others first, so you need to do another bigger mystery. If you can solve this big word mystery, you can get 50,000 US dollars. After Mr. Yang Zhenning arrived in Princeton in the fall of 1949, he received this bigger puzzle, so he and the other four graduate students had divided labor via the phone and decided to solve the mystery as soon as possible. Mr. Yang’s work is to list the words of the five letters on Weber’s dictionary, especially the words of G and W. He works in the library almost 24 hours a day and insists on doing it for a week. He was too sleepy, so he returned to the house to rest. At that time, the landlord hadn’t got up yet. Mr. Yang opened the door and saw the newspaper delivered by the postman. He picked up the newspaper and opened it. The title of the big word above published a news: “Tangchuan Xiushu won this year’s Nobel Prize in Physics” The tree is also the first Japanese to receive the Nobel Prize money). At that time, Mr. Yang asked himself: “Yang Zhenning, what are you doing?” Since then, he decisively withdrawn from the group of answering the puzzle, focusing on his professionalism. Du Fu said more than a thousand years ago to break out of the care of “chicken and insect gains and losses”, and betting his precious energy and time on the goal of Gao Yuan is indeed a great wisdom of life.
“Chicken Intellectual Loss” can be troubled. Will the original beautiful things worry about it? How should we face it? Huang Tingjian, a poet in the Song Dynasty, wrote a poem “Wang Chongdao sent fifty water fairy flowers, and he was happy to do it.”
Ling Bo Fairy has a dust socks, and the water is lightweight on the water. Who recruits this broken intestinal soul, and it is sorrowful to plant cold flowers. The fragrance of fragrance is desperate, and the alum is a brother and brother. Sitting was really annoyed, and when he went out, he smiled.
Judging from the topic, this incident is completely a great thing of the poet: the good friends sent themselves as a narcissus, which is known as a fairy in the flower. The narcissus is a beautiful flower, and there are so many quantities. It’s a beautiful thing. Therefore, the first six sentences of the poems are written in various aspects of the elegant color of narcissus flowers, the gesture, and the fragrance of fragrance. But when the tail -tailed pen turned around, the poet said that “sitting right is really annoyed”, even if it is a beautiful scenery as a narcissus flower, if you face it all day and keep it all day, then you will be So I was troubled. How to do it? How can we solve this trouble that breeds due to aesthetic fatigue? The last sentence said, “Going out with a smile on the river”, we should go out of the house, go to see the broader world outside, so that ourselves have a broader vision and a greater mind, and then establish a higher goal. Narcissus does not complain or naggle. You can look at it all day long and all day. Communicate with the outside world to cultivate some of your interests and hobbies, so that you can have a good state of mind. This is exactly the wisdom of life contained in poetry.
The information picture
Poetry and teaching in the state of character is in the realm of character
Let’s read another famous poem, “Jiang Xue” of Liu Zongyuan in the Tang Dynasty:
Thousands of mountain birds are flying, and people are destroyed by thousands of people. Boat PC World Weng, fishing alone trees and snow.
If we connect the first characters of this poem each sentence, it is “thousands of loneliness”, the main purpose is very clear.
So, how does the author express this loneliness? How to express our helplessness when we face loneliness, and what attitude we should hold to face loneliness? The two sentences in this poem are used in the “Thousand” and “Thousands of Thousands”, and the “loneliness” and “independence” of the latter two sentences are such a thin contrast.
The “mountain” and “birds” in the first sentence are scenery in the air, which requires people to raise their heads, and the “trails” and “traces” in the second sentence require people to bow their heads and look at it. of. These two sentences seemed to indicate that a person was shrouded in a lonely net from top to bottom, and escaped without anything, just as Mr. Gu Sui said, “I am in the middle of the world, and in ancient times to the present.” “)).
What the poet relies on strong loneliness and loneliness is only “lonely boat” and “蓑 蓑”. Under such thin equipment conditions, the protagonist is no longer a young man with a strong age, but the image of “Weng”. Then what you can rely on can only be the inner strength and spiritual attachment.
It is worth noting that the title of this poem is called “Jiang Xue”, and the word “Jiang Xue” is not only “Jiang Xue” until the end of the poem. And what is “Jiang Xue” as an object? It is “fishing”. It is not fish, but snow. Can this snow catch it? It is a question mark, right? In other words, when we are pursuing the ideal, when we are persistent, others may seem “idiot” and “stupid”. In a lonely external environment, can we continue to persevere Shou? Can you still have the courage to “catch the cold river and snow alone”?
Finally, we generally summarize that the beauty of Chinese classical poetry can be divided into three levels: first, the beauty of sound and perceptual; the second is the beauty of artistic conception and aesthetics; the third is the beauty of character and the realm of morality. When reading poems and reading, readers will also cause readers to think about what kind of person they want to be. Just as Mr. Gu Sui said: “China says ‘poeticism’ is not teaching poetry, it is to make good people.” Today we inherit classical poetry, not only can we write and engraved the boat for swords, but more importantly, it should be deserved. It is to cultivate the body and mind, Dunbi Xingxing, recognize the cultivation and character of the ancients from the ideology, and practice the wisdom and cultivation of the ancients from the action.
“Guangming Daily” (10th edition on February 20, 2021)
Source: Guangming.com- “Guangming Daily”